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    Главная » Статьи » Интересно каждому » Интересно каждому

    ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ УМЕНИЙ АУДИРОВАНИЯ

    Эту статью мне посоветовал сосед, который использует http://www.gidrol.ru/ и очень ей доволен. Это прочный материал, способный удовлетворить даже самого придирчивого заказчика. Проблематике и выявить общность и различия во взглядах авторов. В соответствии с целью занятия аудитивные задания, различаясь по материалу, могут быть однотипными по задаче восприятия. При иной же цели занятия, обучающего аудированию, восприятие на слух может протекать на основе одного и того же текста с постепенным усложнением аудитивной задачи. Умения сопоставлять различные источники по одной проблеме необходимы студентам для более глубокого изучения теоретических дисциплин и для творческой работы по специальности в будущем. Занятие рассчитано на два часа и соответствует середине II курса языкового вуза. Структура занятия The aim of the lesson is to teach you to compare several texts dealing with the same problems, to single out what the authors have in common and what they differ by, and to give your own point of view on the problems. Though the texts were written some twenty or thirty years ago, you may find that many issues are of immediate concern to the people of today. 1. Сопоставление пар реплик и определение идентичности или противоположности выраженных в них мнений. Listen to the pairs of utterances. Show your blue cards if the speakers agree with each other and your red cards if they disagree. E.g.: Modern technology has a very bad effect upon nature. Mode technology is likely to ruin nature. 2. Составление высказываний по подстановочной таблице. Make up two utterances using the table, each consisting of at least two sentences. In the first utterance, the second sentence should add something to the opening sentence ("Besides, ... "). In the second case, the continuation should oppose the beginning ("But on the other hand, ...."):
    Due to the automatization of industry, life in the future may become be able to learn several jobs in a lifetime.
    have to change several jobs in a lifetime.
    more difficult be able to do less physical work.
    easier because become lazier and more passive.
    more exciting people be able to give more time to art (to sports).
    less exciting will do more intellectual work.
    rely more on computers than on themselves.
    3. Сопоставление на слух развернутых реплик, содержащих несколько различающуюся информацию, с целью определить, содержит ли каждая вторая реплика в паре дополнительную информацию или информацию, противоречащую первой реплике. Listen to the pairs of utterances. Does the second utterance in each pair supply additional information or does it contradict the first utterance? Reproduce the necessary details from the second utterance to prove your point of view. E.g.: a) Air pollution is dangerous because the diseases it causes do not manifest themselves immediately. In the long run, you never know what has ruined your health, b) No matter how hard you try to keep fit, it's hardly possible in a big city. Too many factors are involved. Besides the polluted air, there's the noise of the traffic and the constant nervous tension. 4. Прослушивание связного текста с целью вычленить основные проблемы. Listen to the text and then say which of the following points are reflected in it. 1) people's interest in the past; 2) people's interest in the future; 3) a great number of films and books on historical subjects and science fiction; 4) questions concerning the food and clothes of the future centuries; 5) the possibility that the Earth will be destroyed completely; 6) the chances of our planet becoming unfit for life; 7) the reasons why life may become impossible on Earth; 8) the possibility that the future generations may live happily on another planet; 9) the possibility of the world remaining nearly the same in the next century Getting Away from the Present Although we live in the twentieth century, many people are more interested in the things that happened in the sixteenth century or that will happen in the 21st century. A lot of films, books and plays are about historical subjects or science fiction. Perhaps people are more interested in other times because they want to get away from the present. Of course, we know many things about the past. But what will it be like in the twenty-first century? Will historians look at our clothes and laugh? Will they be surprised that our transport was so slow and our life so busy? Will people be happier than the people of today? Maybe they will think that we were lucky to live in a world which still had some room and where people were happy. Or maybe they will be quite satisfied living on the Moon or even Mars and will not wonder about what happened on Earth. (Mozaika, 1971). 5. Воспроизведение основного содержания прослушанного текста в виде собственных ответов на вопросы, содержащиеся в нем. Listen to the text again and answer the questions asked by the author E.g. I don't think that people of the 21st century will laugh at our clothes, but they will certainly wonder at our transport being so slow... etc. 6. Прослушивание второго текста с целью вычленить его основные проблемы и сравнить их с проблематикой первого текста. The Futurologists What will you and I be doing in A.D. 2000? Will we be eating tablets, wearing paper and leaving all our problems to computers? Or will we leave this world and go to another planet to start life again? Well, according to one scientist, we certainly won't be living here. Professor Paul Ehrlich of Stanford University believes that in a few years we shall destroy ourselves, because there are already "too many of us eating too much". Of course. Professor Ehrlich isn't the first to have depressing ideas about our future. Twenty years ago a lot of people thought that we would soon blow ourselves up. Then, as we got used to living with that idea, they decided that the world would still be here but that life would be impossible. According to such people, the world will soon become overcrowded, we shall eat up all the food, use up all the minerals and destroy all the trees and animals. The idea that the world will end soon isn't new. I sometimes wonder what happened to those people whom I often saw walking the streets with signs that read: "1968 - the end of the world". Maybe, Professor Ehrlich, like them, will go quietly into a corner to change his dates. Maybe in 2000 life won't be so different - except that we'll be talking about the world in A.D. 3000. 7. Суммирование дополнительной информации по второму тексту. Sum up the additional information supplied by the second text. Is the point of view quoted in the second text optimistic or pessimistic? What makes it such? Does the author share the point of view he quotes? 8. Прослушивание третьего текста с целью сопоставить информацию, содержащуюся во всех трех текстах. Listen to the last text. Compare it with the first two and then say if you agree with the following statements: 1. All the texts deal with the chances of the coming generation to live happily. 2. All the texts mention the fact that most people would have preferred to live in the past. 3. The first text is the most pessimistic of all the three. 4. All the texts mention the fact that the coming generation may have to face some very serious problems. 5. None of the authors mentioned that people might move to another planet. 6. All the authors are absolutely pessimistic about our future. 7. All the authors suppose that our future depends on the way we live and behave today. Pollution One of the most serious problems the modern world has to face is the problem of pollution. What most people breathe in the cities and towns is very dirty air. Modern technology has a very bad effect upon nature. We produce a lot of synthetic things but we can't get rid of them when we do not need them any more. Most of these things end up in the ocean. But sooner or later the oceans will also become polluted and, therefore, dangerous to people. Life may become impossible. That is why ecology has now become a very important science. It tells us how to live on in harmony with nature. We must try to understand what results our activity may have. If technology got man into such a dangerous situation, technology must find the way out of it. We cannot afford to ignore the laws of nature. If we do, the world will end in a catastrophe. But if we behave reasonably, the future generations may live quite happily and be thankful to us. 9. Суммирование основного содержания текста в связи с заданным коммуникативным намерением. What are the problems we have to face to ensure life in the coming century? 10. Полемическое высказывание по проблематике, представленной в трех текстах. How should both historians and futurologists treat the concept of civilization? Enumerate the main aspects they should investigate. Are they all reflected in the given texts? В структуре занятия подобного типа рецептивные задания обязательно чередуются с репродуктивными в целях активизации оперативной памяти, которая необходима для дальнейшей обработки смысловой информации.

    Инструкция к завершающему заданию сформулирована таким образом, чтобы обеспечить использование всех трех прослушанных текстов, т. е. объединяет предыдущие задания по трем текстам. При дефиците аудиторного времени прослушивание любого из текстов может быть проведено до начала занятия. Хотя отсроченность во времени затрудняет работу оперативной памяти, это компенсируется возможностями многократного прослушивания текстов заранее. Очень важен точный подбор визуальных опор для восприятия (см. задания 4 и 8), которые, с одной стороны, стимулировали бы сопоставление, а с другой способствовали бы творческому обобщению информации и формулированию собственных выводов.

    Категория: Интересно каждому | Добавил: Admin (29.01.2010)
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