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    London - the capital of Great Britain

    When we think of Paris, Rome. Madrid, Lisbon and other European capitals, we think of them as "cities'. When we think of the whole of modern London, the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, that great area covering several hundred square kilometres, we do not think of it as 'a city. not even as a city and its suburbs. Modem London is not one city that has steadily become larger through the centuries; it is a number of cities. towns, and villages that have, during the past centuries, grown together to make one vast urban area.

    London is situated upon both banks of the River Thames, it is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest in the world. Its population is about 7 million people.

    Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать | Просмотров: 9110 | Добавил: f531 | Дата: 26.07.2009 | Комментарии (0)

    Business Ethics

    Introduction

    Businesses have power through their ability to spend vast amounts of money. They have the ability to enhance or change situations that the common individual does not. As organisations affect many people, they have obligations to their employees, consumers, community and the world. They have a responsibility to conduct business in a way that is not harmful and which positively benefits as many people as possible and themselves. Although this sounds simple, it is easier said than done! as there will always be a conflict of interest between various groups of people. Any decisions made by businesses need to be made with an informed awareness of the specific situation and then act according to some sort of system of principals which is Business Ethics.


    Fables

    The Ant and the Chrysalis

    An Ant nimbly running about in the sunshine in search of food came across a Chrysalis that was very near its time of change. The Chrysalis moved its tail, and thus attracted the attention of the Ant, who then saw for the first time that it was alive. "Poor, pitiable animal!” cried the Ant disdainfully. "What a sad fate is yours!  While I can run hither and thither, at my pleasure, and, if I wish, ascend the tallest tree, you lie imprisoned here in your shell, with power only to move a joint or two of your scaly tail.” The Chrysalis heard all this, but did not try to make any reply. A few days after, when the Ant passed that way again, nothing but the shell remained. Wondering what had become of its contents, he felt himself suddenly shaded and fanned by the gorgeous wings of a beautiful Butterfly. "Behold in me,” said the Butterfly, "your much-pitied friend! Boast now of your powers to run and climb as long as you can get me to listen.” So saying, the Butterfly rose in the air, and, borne along and aloft on the summer breeze, was soon lost to the sight of the Ant forever.

    "Appearances are deceptive.”


    Problems At School

    The survey

    Carried out by:

    A. Luik

    D. Grunichev

    S. Golubev

    The survey was carried out on the 4th of December in Secondary School of Humanities; among 11 students of from 9C aged 14-16.

    A task, which our group asked the students to do, was about to choose the main problems at their school from out list. These problems were:


    Intonation is the music of the language. In English, we use tone to signal emotion, questioning, and parts of the sentence among many other things. It's important to recognize the meaning behind the tones used in everyday speech, and to be able to use them so that there are no misunderstandings between the speaker and the listener. It is generally true that mistakes in pronunciation of sounds can be overlooked, but mistakes in intonation make a lasting impression.


    Educational System in Great Britain

    The educational system of G.B. is extremely complex and bewildering. It is very difficult to generalize about particular types of schools as schools differ from one to the other.

    The department of education and science is responsible for national educational policy, but it doesn’t employee teacher or prescribe curricular or text books. Each school has it’s own board of governors consisting of teachers, parents, local politicians, members of local community, businessmen and sometimes pupils.


    Тranslation

    Introduction.

    Translation is a mean of interlingual communication. The translator makes possible an exchange of information between users of different languages by producing in the target language a text which has an identical communicative value with the source text. This target text is not fully identical with the source text as to its form originality content due to the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the source language and target text.

    National coloring of the work is one of examples of these differences. Now it is one of important themes to be studied/ During many years the USSR’s confines were closed and we had not much opportunity to interact with many foreign countries. Of course, we had a great number of foreign books but most of them were either classic books or books of working class. So we had not opportunity to value all the literature of foreign countries. the same case was in the foreign countries when they could not get all the variety of Russian literature. They also preferred to read our classics. The result of it was that they could know only archaic coloring of the works and they had little information about national coloring of Russia. And now then USSR does not exist any more every state that was a part of the USSR can perform its own literature and hence national coloring.


    Ecological problems

    The Earth is the only planet in the solar system where there is life. If you look down at the Earth from a plane you will see how wonderful our planet is. You will see blue seas and oceans, rivers and lakes, high snow-capped mountains, green forests and fields. For centuries man lived in harmony with nature until industrialization brought human society into conflict with the natural environment. Today, the contradictions between man and nature have acquired a dramatic character. With the development of civilization man’s interference in nature has increased. Every year the world’s industry pollutes the atmosphere with millions of tons of dust and other harmful substances. The seas and rivers are poisoned with industrial waste, chemical and sewage discharge. People who live in big cities are badly affected by harmful discharge from plants and city transport and by the increasing noise level which is as bad for human health as lack of fresh air and clean water.


    Несомненно, что знакомясь с иностранным зыком, усваивая, изучая его, человек одновременно проникает в новую национальную культуру, получает огромное духовное богатство, хранимое изучаемым языком.

    В частности, русский школьник, студент, простой обыватель, осваивая иностранный язык, в данном случае английский, получает высокоэффективную возможность приобщиться к национальной культуре и истории народа Великобритании.

    Фразеология, как неотъемлемая часть и своеобразная сокровищница любого языка мира, может особенно сильно способствовать этому приобщению.

    Фразеологизмы и фразеологические сочетания отражают многовековую историю английского народа, своеобразие его культуры, быта, традиций. Поэтому фразеологизмы – высоко информативные единицы английского языка.

     


    Для удобства изложения в этом же разделе рассматриваете употребление этих глаголов в качестве модальных и смысловых.

    Вспомогательные глаголы - это такие глаголы, с помощью которых образуются сложные глагольные формы. Вспомогательные глаголы не имеют своего самостоятельного лексического значения и служат лишь показателем времени, залога, наклонения и в некоторых случаях—лица и числа смыслового глагола, с которым они употребляются.

    К вспомогательным глаголам относятся глаголы: to be, to have, to do, shall, should, will, would.

    Глаголы to be, to have, shall, should, will, would употребляются и в модальном значении, а глаголы to be, to have, to do употребляются, кроме того, как смысловые глаголы.


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