1. Answer these questions. 1. Name some countries where English is the native language. 2. In what countries is English an official language? 3. Why is English so popular? 4. What are your reasons for studying this language?
2. Read the text. People speak English not only in Great Britain and the United States. Britain has more than 56 million inhabitants who speak English as their native language. Altogether about 350 million people in the world speak English as their first language. It is an official language in more than 60 countries and it means that another 160 million people use English as their second language. Over two thirds of the world’s scientists write in English. Three quarters of the world’s mail is in English. 85% of the information in computers in the world is in English too. English is also the language of pop music, advertising and teaching. Singapore is one of the largest ports in the world. It is an independent republic. Children in schools used to have their lessons in Chinese because the majority of the population is Chinese. Now teachers use English as the main language. India has 15 main languages and hundreds of dialects, but English is the language of Parliament, legal and medical professions. There are over a thousand newspapers in India in the English language. You must learn English if you work for an international airline. The control tower communicates with pilots all over the world in English. Almost all multi-national companies do business in English. When a German company director meets a customer from Greece to discuss a new project and to sign a contract, they talk to each other in English. Everywhere industrial companies label their products in English. It is not because Britain and the United States are the biggest export markets in the world, but because English has become an international language.
Vocabulary inhabitant житель, мешканець native рідний two thirds дві третини scientist вчений three quarters три чверті mail пошта advertising реклама independent незалежний majority більшість legal правовий control tower диспетчерська в аеропорту communicate спілкуватися customer клієнт, покупець sign підписувати
3. Answer the following questions. 1. What is an official language in India? 2. How many people altogether speak English? 3. Why do companies label their products in English? 4. Is English a language for teaching? 5. What interesting information have you got about scientists, mail and computers? 6. Why do pilots learn English? 7. What is the language of international business?
4. Ask questions to which the following statements are the answers. 1. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England. 2. The exporting of English began in the 17th century. 3. English is the most widespread language on earth. 4. English is studied as a foreign language at secondary and higher schools of our country. 5. Foreign languages are of great importance in our modern life.
5. Restore the situation round the following words and figures. 350 million, 85%, first language, control tower, advertising, do business, sign, export market, label, computers, official language, scientists.
6. Fill in the gaps with articles, definite or indefinite, if it’s necessary. English is … national language in such countries as … Great Britain, … United States of America, … Canada, … Australia and … New Zealand. It is … mother tongue of nearly three hundred million people. Many people speak … English language in … Japan, … China, … India and … African countries. But many more use it as … international means of communication, because English has become … truly international language.
7. Fill in the gaps with prepositions. The role English plays today is the result of historical processes. The English language, … the course … its historical development, has met … so many influences … abroad that its lexical and grammatical structure has come to reflect … many ways its international use.
8. In the countries listed in the table, English is used either as a first language or as a second language. Identify the 7 countries in which it is used as a first language. Australia Ghana Malaysia South Africa Zambia Bangladesh Hong Kong New Zealand Tanzania Zimbabwe Canada India Nigeria Trinidad Cameroon Irish Republic Pakistan Uganda Ethiopia Jamaica Philippines United Kingdom Gambia Kenya Sierra Leone United States
9. British and American English British and American people speak the same language – right? Wrong. Although they both speak English, there is an increasing number of differences between the two varieties of English. For example, Trudy Burns, an American, and Eileen Unwin, a British, recently spent a very similar day. Here, they describe the day’s events. Read the descriptions. How many differences can you spot?
Trudy (USA) I got up at seven- thirty. I put on my bath robe, went into the bathroom and turn on the bath-tub faucets. After my bath I ate breakfast with my parents on the deck. Our apartment’s on the fifteenth floor, so the view’s terrific. At eight o’clock my mom and I took the elevator to the parking lot underneath our apartment block. First we stopped for gas, then she drove me to school. The freeway was really busy – automobiles everywhere. When I got to school it was raining. Luckily I’d brought my galoshes and an umbrella, so I didn’t get wet. School was OK, except that we had a math test before recess. I think I flunked it. Anyway, after school I took a bus downtown to meet my sister, Susan. She became a grade school teacher after she left college last year. We ate out at a Chinese restaurant. Personally I don’t like rice, so I ordered French-fries instead. Susan disapproved. After dessert and coffee we paid the check and left. It had stopped raining, bur the sidewalks were still wet. Susan gave me the ride home, then I did a history assignment for the next day, watched a movie on TV and went to bed around 11.30. I was pooped.
Eileen (Great Britain) I got up at half past seven. I put on my dressing gown, went into the bathroom and turned on the bath taps. After my bath I had breakfast with my parents on the terrace. Our flat’s on the fifteenth floor, so the view’s terrific. At eight o’clock my mum and I took the lift to the car park under our block of flats. First we stopped for petrol, then she drove me to school. The motorway was really busy – cars everywhere. When I got to school it was raining. Luckily I’d brought my wellington boots and an umbrella, so I didn’t get wet. School was OK, except that we had a maths exam before break. I think I failed it. Anyway, after school I took a bus to the city centre to meet my sister, Susan. She became a primary school teacher after she left university last year. We went out for dinner to a Chinese restaurant. Personally I don’t like rice, so I ordered chips instead. Susan disapproved. After sweet and coffee we paid the bill and left. It had stopped raining but the pavements were still wet. Susan gave me a lift home, then I did some history homework for the next day, watched a film on the TV and went to bed at about half past eleven. I was really tired.
Countries and Nationalities
Country Adjective Nationality England English English Scotland Scottish Scot Wales Welsh Welshman Russia Russian Russian Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainian Germany German German Spain Spanish Spaniard Italy Italian Italian Netherlands Dutch Dutchman China Chinese Chinese Japan Japanese Japanese Poland Polish Pole Portugal Portuguese Portuguese Denmark Danish Dane Finland Finnish Finnish Greece Greek Greek Switzerland Swiss Swiss Norway Norwegian Norwegian Sweden Swedish Swede