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    Образование в России



     Secondary education is mandatory in Russia. Children start school at the

    age of 6 and finish at 17 . As a rule, a child attends the school located

    in the neighborhood,the one which is the closes to home . However , there

    in  big cities there are also so-called "special" schools , offering more

    in-depth  studies of the major European  languages ( English , French, or 

    German), or the advanced courses in physics and mathematics, and children

    attending one of these may have to commute from home. There are no school

    buses in Russia.

     The first stage of education is elementary school for grades 1 through 4.

    The  second  is secondary school for grades 5 through 9 . Upon graduation

    from secondary school ( which  is  not the equivalent of having completed

    their  secondary  education ) , students  are  given the choice of either

    continuing to attend the same school (high school; grades 10 and 11 ), or

    entering a vocational school or trade school. Both vocational school  and

    trade schools are meant to  provide  one , long  with  the certificate of

    secondary  education, with a number of useful skills ( e.g. , those of an

    electrician, technical, or computer operator ).One attends the former for

    two years, and the latter for three or four.

     Haveing completed one's secondary education, one can either become  part

    of work force or go on to college ( " institution of higher learning " ).

    There are universityes and so-called "institutes" in Russian . The former

    stress  a more teoretical , fundamental approach to education , while the

    latter are more practice oriented.

     There are no medical  schools  or  departments with in the  structure of

    Russian universitys . Future doctors attend medical institutes. There are

    no  degrees  in   Russian  equivalent to those of bachelor's or master's.

    Students  spend  approximately  five years in college or six in a medical


     To be admited to an institution of higher learning , one has to  pass  a

    series of oral and written tests. Grades in the certificate of  secondary

    education are also taken account.

     Entry to higher education is quite competitive. Some college departments

    ( philologist,foreign languages-especially English,law, journalism ) have

    dozens of applicants for one prospective student's position. The same  is

    true of medical and theatre institutes.

     Up to the present, neither college students nor schoolchildren have  had

    any  say  in  the  selection  of  courses they had to take. Everyone  has

    studied  according  to  uniform  series  of  guide  lines approved by the

    Ministery  of  Higher  Education . Evidently , this situation is going to

    change in the near future.

     Education in Russia has until recently been free on all levels. College

    students  with  good  grades  were  rewarded  with a modest stipend . All

    institutions  of  higher learning were subsidized by the government . Now

    that  the  country  is  changing to a market-place economy, the system of

    education  is  also bound to undergo profound changes . The first private

    scholls , gymnasiums and lycees, have already been founded in  Moscow and

    St. Petersburg , in  an  attempt  to  revive the pre-1917 traditionals of

    Russian educational system with its high standards of excellence.


    Категория: Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать | Добавил: f531 (27.07.2009)
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