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    Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать [170]
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    Air Pollution

     

                Air, is the most essential element for all living organisms and yet, most humans play a big role on polluting this essential resource. Air pollution may not be as dangerous in its direct outcome as nuclear or water pollution can be, but in the long term it will have an tremendous effect on the environment and health of its organisms living in. Asthma, cancer, acid rain, and the disability to photosynthesize are only a few causes of air pollution.The atmospheric pollutants with the greatest effect onto the environment are the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, dust particles, radioactive isotopes, and  chlorofluorocarbons. The major sources that enable carbon monoxide to enter the atmosphere are the exhausts of cars, the burning of fossil fuels, and the oxidation of natural methane. Carbon dioxide is caused by the consumption of fossil fuels only and it causes the possible greenhouse effect which has global warming as an outcome. Hydrocarbons are caused by the combustion of oil and petrol and it effects the environment with carcinogen. Carcinogen is a chemical agent that causes cancer. Sulphur dioxide is certainly one of the major atmospheric pollutants considered that it causes stinging eyes, lung damage, asthma, and acid rain. It is the result of coal-fired power stations. Nitrogen oxides that is produced by the exhaust of cars, causes pneumonia and asphyxia. The outcome of the well known dust particles is often underestimated. It is caused by industrial chimneys, car exhaust, and volcanic eruptions and it effects the environment by toxic effects and damage of the lungs. Radioactive isotopes which are caused by small quantities from nuclear waste and nuclear accidents  have an carcinogenic effect on the environment as well. The outcome of chlorfluorocarbons, which had been first discovered in the 80s is that it destroys the ozone layer. Many of those major atmospheric pollutants combined produce the dangerous and well known smoke and gas emission called smog.

    Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать | Просмотров: 5965 | Добавил: f531 | Дата: 27.07.2009 | Комментарии (0)

    The adjective expresses the categorial semantics of property of a substance. It means that each adjective used in tile text presupposes relation to some noun the property of whose referent it denotes, such as its material, colour, dimensions, position, state, and other characteristics both per­manent and temporary. It follows from this that, unlike nouns, adjectives do not possess a full nominative value. Indeed, words like long, hospitable, fragrant cannot effect any self-dependent nominations; as units of informative sequences they exist only in collocations showing what is long, who is hospitable, what is fragrant.

    The semantically bound character of the adjective is emphasized in English by the use of the prop-substitute one in the absence of the notional head-noun of the phrase. E.g.:

    I don't want a yellow balloon, let me have the green one over there.

     

    On the other hand, if the adjective is placed in a nominatively self-dependent position, this leads to its substantivi­zation. E.g.: Outside it was a beautiful day, and the sun tinged the snow with red. Cf.: The sun tinged the snow with the red colour.


    About Myself.

      My name is … . I’m a pupil of the 9th form of the secondary school #****. Our school gives general education. My class used to be a specialized humanitarian class. We have special programs in Russian, Russian Literature and History. I always liked social sciences and I enjoy staying here.

       I’m fifteen. I’m tall, slim, dark-haired young lady. I’m the only child in my family and I’m very upset of this. I would like to have a sister or a brother.

      But I don’t feel alone: I have many friends in our school. We spend o lot of time together, we walk, play badminton and computer and just chatter.

       I’m fond of reading and playing computer games. I like adventure books, I’ve read most of Alexander Dumas novels. Best of all I liked "The Three Musqueteers” and "The Black Tulip”. At the present time I’m reading the detective stories of Sydney Sheldon.

      I like cooking. I can make pizza and sweet small cakes. My mother says that I do it better than she does.

       I’m very active and like sports. I like to play tennis, badminton, to ride a bicycle and to swim. My new hobby is roller-skating and we have a lot of fun with my friends.


    A question of taste. Fashion.

    Fashion is something we deal with everyday. Even people, who say they don’t care what they wear, choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how they feel that day.

    What influences our choice of clothes is an interesting question. I believe that most of the people do not follow the fashion displayed on the catwalk. That kind of clothes is the product of famous high-class designers’ work, it is more often very extravagant and extremely expensive. It is also not designed to be worn every day, but it is suitable some special occasions.

    However, we definitely get fashion ideas from music clips, videos, books and television. Movies also have a big impact on what people wear. For example it is known that more sunglasses were sold in America after the movie Man In Black. Sometimes a trend is world-wide. Back in the 50-s teenagers everywhere dressed like Elvis Presley.


    The protection of the environment

    Our country. Our environment. There are many big and small rivers, green forests, high mountains, lakes and seas in Russia. Our Earth is our home.

    I think people must take care of our Motherland. There are some laws and decisions on this important subject. We have state organizations which pay attention to this problem.

    The international conventions pay much attention to the control of pollution too. There are a lot of industrial enterprises in our country, that's why we can't ignore the problem of the protection of our environment.


    My Favorite Book

    My favorite book is one of the most famous novels in world literature, Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment from 1866. It is a stressful tale about one man’s attempt to escape the implication of a single terrible act of murder.

    Rodion Romanovitch Raskolnikov - known as Rodya - is a handsome young student who, in an attempt to save his sister Dounia from marrying just to provide for him, kills a careless sixty-year old pawnbroker with a porter’s axe. During the killing, her sister Lizaveta enters and he murders her too, burying the spoils.


    Problems of city and country life

    - Where would you prefer to live in the city or in the country?

    - If I could choose where to live I would have the best of both places as each of them has its own advantages to say nothing of disadvantages.

    - What are the advantages of living in the modern city?

    - Life in the city is much easier than in the country - developed transport system, sewerage system, information, sports, shopping malls, etc. Modern men are too sophisticated for simple country pleasures. There is far more entertainment in the city than in the country. Cities offer high concentration of good things in life: big stores, restaurants, theatres, cinema, art galleries. Life is more convenient in a city: services are always better here. In the city people are more open-minded. It is possible to go out, make friends and never be cut off from them by weather conditions. Generally, people do not mind what you do in the city. In the city people have more chances to be employed, as the range of jobs is greater than in a village. Besides in the city people have more chances to succeed. Moreover, life is never dull in the city, people always have something to do here. The objections to city living are not convincing enough. People easily adapt to various inconveniences of city life. For example, noise and traffic are hardly noticeable to city-dwellers. In the city especially in our country people live in apartments with central heating, telephone, gas, electricity, radio, TV the Internet. Most people love cities. In 330 BC Aristotle wrote that by nature man belonged to a city. Many people love the busy city life. It is enough for them to visit a country at week-ends.


    Books in Our Life

    Books... I think that we can't live without them. I consider that books are with us during all our life. When I was a child my parents read them to me. I was pleased to listen to the stories and tales. I learned a lot of interesting things from books. I remember, I liked thick books.

    Later I could read myself. I like to read books about animals, nature and children. I like to get presents on my birthday. I am happy if it is a book. It doesn't matter what kind of book it is. I like to read almost all books. If I have got time I like to spend it with my favourite book.


    Christmas Day

    Every country has its own customs and traditions. English people are proud of their traditions and they keep them up.

    It is difficult to speak about England without speaking about its holidays. Christmas Day is among them.

    All English people celebrate Christmas (or X-mas) on the 25th of December.

    Christmas! What kind of holiday is it? It is the yearly celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. It falls on December 25 by the Catholic Church and on the 7th of January by the Orthodox Church. This holiday means the beginning of the new year and the new life. English people celebrate this holiday with the evergreen tree - Christmas tree. Children put a long sock, called a Christmas stocking at the end of their beds and Santa Claus comes down the chimney to bring them presents.

    Christmas Day is the greatest holiday in England. It is interesting to visit the shops before this holiday. There are a lot of nice Christmas cards and presents there. English people like this holiday very much and prepare for it beforehand. They buy presents for each other, try to send Christmas cards for their relatives and friends.


    My hobby

    What is a hobby? It is what you can and like to do, when you have free time. We choose a hobby according to our character and taste. When we have a hobby our life becomes more interesting.

    Very often our hobby helps us to choose our future profession because we learn a lot of new things.

    Many people are interested in music. They collect records. Others like to read and collect books. People living in cities and towns like to be closer to nature and they spend their free time in the country.

    Some of us go on hikes, some like to Work in their gardens, take photographs or knit.

    For example, gardening and growing roses is the most common hobby among Englishmen.

    Both grown-ups and children are fond of playing different computer games. It has become one of the numerous hobbies.

    I have got a hobby too.


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