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    Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать [170]

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    Global Warming or Global Cooling the Threat for the Future?

    Has the climate of the United States changed significantly during the century that is about to end? In what ways and by how much? Have national trends emerged that agree--or perhaps disagree--with what is expected from projections of global greenhouse warming? These are questions addressed in a report entitled "Trends in U.S. Climate during the Twentieth Century," by Thomas R. Karl, Richard W. Knight, David R. Easterling, Robert G. Quayle who serve on the scientific staff of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Asheville, North Carolina. Thomas "The challenge to the climatologist is to separate any meaningful signals from ever-present noise, and to discern, if possible, whether there is indeed at work the sometimes slow and subtle hand of significant change. The second task, which is even harder, is to identify, unequivocally, the cause," according to the scientists was the focus of their study.

    "Before such questions can be answered, we need to remind ourselves that 'climate', as it is defined for a specific region and time, includes more than the simple average of weather conditions. Either random events or long-term persistent change, or more often combinations of them, can bring about significant swings in a variety of climate indicators from one time period to the next. Examples include a year dominated by severe drought and the next excessively wet; a series of bitterly cold winters followed by winters more mild; one scorching summer preceded by a summer pleasantly warm; years with numerous severe storms followed by years with few severe storms. The temptation at each time and place is often to attribute any of these temporal and sometimes local variations to a wider and more pervasive change in climate..."

    Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать | Просмотров: 4385 | Добавил: f531 | Дата: 27.07.2009 | Комментарии (0)

    Europe is our common home


    1.   Introduction.

    2.   Passport.

    a)   Aria.

    b)   Recourses.

    c)   Population.

    d)   The largest countries.

    e)   The longest rivers, the largest lakes, the highest mountains.

    f)    Languages.

    3)            The origin of the word Europe.

    4)            Geographical position.

    5)            Boundaries.

    6)            Climate.

    7)            Countries and languages.

    8)            Religions.

    9)            History of Europe.


    Culture is one of the most important components, which form every nation. It is one occurrence that distinguishes and unites all the people who live in the world. But it is impossible to imagine the culture without music, a very big part of our life.

             Every nation has one’s own music and I think that inside music are concluded all peculiarities of the nation, it is contain the key for understand the soul of people.

             When I was associated with foreigners (they were Americans) I noted that they liked our folk music, they frequently listened it and each of them had without fail an audiocassette with Russian folk music. They told me about the most popular in United States Russian singers and composers. Our pop music is not famous outside Russia. But many people from other countries love our folk and classical music.

             On the contrary we know nothing about American folk and classical music and I would like to discuss about it.

             By my opinion a serious study of American music is arrestingly important at this time. Music has become on of American leading industries American performing standards are probably now higher than anywhere else in the world, and Americans are making rapid strides in music education. How large a part in all this activity is American music to play? How good is it? How does it differ from Russian music?

    English painting.


    Our life seems to be impossible without art. It really occupies an important part in our daily life. Art offers us not only pleasure and amusement but it is also a vehicle of culture and education. Art penetrates into all spheres and sides of our life and makes it brighter, richer and more intellectual. People like and know different types of art. Some of them are fond of painting. Others have a special liking for music or they have a passion for literature. But all of us cant help admiring the canvases of such great painters as Thomas Gainsborough, Rembrand etc.

    So, art units different people, influences the development of personality, makes our innerworld richer, feels our soul with different feelings. It makes us stronger, inforces us in difficult situations.

    Time is flying art is forever.


    Painting in England began to develop later than in over European countries. That's why some of the greatest foreign masters were attracted to England by the titles of nobility conferred upon them. Holbein, Antonio Mor, Rubens, Van Dyck were almost English painters during longer or shorter periods of their lives.



    England is the largest and the richest part of GB. Its’ capital is London. The biggest industrial cities are London, Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester, and other interesting cities as York, Chester, Oxford, and Cambridge.

    Stonehenge is one of the most popular prehistoric places in England. It is situate in the south-west of England. It is a circle of enormous stones (4 meters high) 80 meters across. Why it was built—is a mystery. However, there are suggestions. One explorers say that it used to be an ancient observatory (there some astronomic sence in the position of stones), others—a temple and so on.

    American English.


    In the early part of the seventeenth century English settlers began to bring their language to America, and another series of changes began to take place. The settlers borrowed words from Indian languages for such strange trees as the hickory and persimmon, such unfamiliar animals as raccoons and woodchucks. Later they borrowed other words from settlers from other countries – for instance, chowder and prairie from the French, scow and sleigh from the Dutch. They made new combinations of English words, such as backwoods and bullfrog, or gave old English words entirely new meanings, such as  lumber ( which in British English means approximately junk ) and corn ( which in British means any grain, especially wheat ). Some  of the new terms were needed, because there were new and un-English things to talk about. Others can be explained only on the general theory that languages are always changing, and American English is no exception.




     Secondary education is mandatory in Russia. Children start school at the

    age of 6 and finish at 17 . As a rule, a child attends the school located

    in the neighborhood,the one which is the closes to home . However , there

    in  big cities there are also so-called "special" schools , offering more

    in-depth  studies of the major European  languages ( English , French, or 

    German), or the advanced courses in physics and mathematics, and children

    attending one of these may have to commute from home. There are no school

    buses in Russia.

     The first stage of education is elementary school for grades 1 through 4.

    The  second  is secondary school for grades 5 through 9 . Upon graduation

    from secondary school ( which  is  not the equivalent of having completed

    their  secondary  education ) , students  are  given the choice of either

    continuing to attend the same school (high school; grades 10 and 11 ), or

    entering a vocational school or trade school. Both vocational school  and

    trade schools are meant to  provide  one , long  with  the certificate of

    secondary  education, with a number of useful skills ( e.g. , those of an

    electrician, technical, or computer operator ).One attends the former for

    two years, and the latter for three or four.

    Easter Island

    One of the world's most famous yet least visited archaeological sites, Easter Island is a small, hilly, now treeless island of volcanic origin. Located in the Pacific Ocean at 27 degrees south of the equator, some 2200 miles (3600 kilometers) off the coast of Chile, the island is 63 square miles in size and has extinct volcanoes rising to 1500 feet. In the early 1950s, the Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl (famous for his Kon-Tiki raft voyages across the oceans) popularized the idea that the island, called Rapa Nui by the natives, had been originally settled by advanced societies of Indians from the coast of South America. Extensive archaeological, ethnographic, and linguistic research has conclusively shown this hypothesis to be inaccurate. It is now recognized that the original inhabitants of Easter Island are of Polynesian stock (DNA extracts from skeletons have recently confirmed this), that they most probably came from the Marquesas or Society islands, and that they arrived around AD 380 to 400. At the time of their arrival, the island was entirely covered in thick forests and was teeming with land birds. It was the richest seabird breeding site in Polynesia and probably in the whole Pacific. Within a matter of centuries this profusion of wildlife was entirely destroyed by the islanders' way of life. The reasons are today eminently clear.

    Fedor Dostoevsky (1821-1881)    


     The Russian writer Dostoevski is regarded as one of the world's great novelists. In Russia he was surpassed only by Leo Tolstoi.

       Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevski was born on Nov. 11, 1821, in a Moscow hospital where his father was a physician. At 13 Fedor was sent to a Moscow boarding school, then to a military engineering school in St. Petersburg. Shortly after graduating he resigned his commission in order to devote his time to writing.



           When Charles Babbage, a professor of Mathematics at Cambridge university, invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he couldn’t imagine the situation we find ourselves in today. Nearly everything we do in the world is helped, or even controlled by computers, the complicated descedants of his simple machine. Computers are used more and more often in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more efficent than human beings. They have much better memories and they can store much information. No man alive can do 500000 sums in one second, but a computer can. In fact, computers can do many of the things we do, but faster and better. They can predict weather, and ever play chess, write poetry or compose music.

    The use of computers

            Just as television has extended human sight across the barriers of time and distance, so the computers extend the power of the human mind across the existing barriers.

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