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    Главная » Статьи » КУРСОВЫЕ И ДИПЛОМЫ » Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать

    Американский и Британский варианты английского

    Aside from the new vocabulary, differences in pronunciation, in grammatical construction, and especially in intonation developed. If the colonization had taken place a few centuries earlier, American might have become as different from English as French is from Italian. But the settlement occurred after the invention of printing, and continued through a period when the idea of educating everybody was making rapid progress. For a long time most of the books read in America came from England, and a surprising number of Americans read those books, in or out of school. Moreover, most of the colonists seem to have felt strong ties with England. In this they were unlike their Anglo-Saxon ancestors, who apparently made a clean break with their continental homes.

    A good many Englishmen and some Americans used to condemn every difference that did develop, and as recently as a generation ago it was not unusual to hear all "Americanisms” condemned, even in America. It is now generally recognized in this country that we are not bound to the Queen’s English, but have a full right to work out our own habits. Even a good many of the English now concede this, though some of them object strongly to the fact that Americanisms are now having an influence on British usage.

    There are thousands of differences in detail between British and American English, and occasionally they crowd together enough to make some difficulty. If you read that a man, having trouble with his lorry, got out his spanner and lifted the bonnet to see what was the matter, you might not realize that the driver of the truck had taken out his wrench and lifted the hood. It is amusing to play with such differences, but the theory that the American language is now essentially different from English does not hold up. It is often very difficult to decide whether a book was written by an American or an English man. Even in speech it would be hard to prove that national differences are greater than some local differences in either country. On the whole, it now seems probable that the language habits of the two countries will grow more, rather than less, alike, although some differences will undoubtedly remain and others may develop.

    It also seems probable that there will be narrow-minded and snobbish people in both countries for some time to come. But generally speaking, anybody who learnsto speak and write the standard English of his own country, and to regard that of the other country as a legitimate variety with certain interesting differences, will have little trouble wherever he goes. 

     

     

     

             Lexical difference.

     

    Lexical differences of american variant highly extensive on the strength of multiple borrowing from spanish and indian languages, what was not in british english.

     

     

       American variant                                                 British variant

     

    Subway                           «метро»               underground

    the movies                       «кинотеатр»        the cinema

    shop                                «магазин»           store

    sidewalk                           «тротуар»            pavement

    line                                  «очередь»           queue

    soccer                             «футбол»             football

    mailman                           «почтальон»       postman

    vacation                           «каникулы»         holiday

    corn                                 «кукуруза»          maize

    fall                                   «осень»               autumn

     

     

     

     

    Also claim attention differences in writing some words in american and british variants of language.

    For instance, following:

     

     

    American variant                          British variant

     

          honor                                       honour

          traveler                                     traveller

                    plow                                        plough

                   defense                                     defence

                   jail                                                     gaol

                  center                                       centre

                  apologize                                            apologise

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

      Grammatical difference.

     

    Grammatical differences of american variant consist in following:

     

    1.     In that events, when Britainians use Present Perfect, in Staffs can be used and Present Perfect, and Past Simple.

     

    2.     Take a shower/a bath instead of have a shower/a bath.

     

    3.     Shall is not used. In all persons is used by will.

     

    4.     Needn't (do) usually is not used. Accustomed form -don't need to (do).

     

    5.     After demand, insist, require etc should usually is NOT used. I demanded that he apologize (instead of I demanded that he should apologise in british variant).

     

    6. to/in THE hospital instead of to/in hospital in BrE.

     

    7. on the weekend/on weekend instead of at the weekend/at weekend.

     

    8. on a street instead of in a street.

     

    9. Different from or than instead of different to/from

     

    10. Write is used with to or without the pretext.

     

    11. Past participle of "got" is "gotten"

     

    12. To burn, to spoil and other verbs, which can be regular or

          irregular in the british variant, in the american variant ALWAYS

          regular.

     

    13. Past Perfect, as a rule, is not used completely.

     

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    Категория: Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать | Добавил: f531 (27.07.2009)
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