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    Главная » Статьи » Языки мира » Древнеанглийский язык

    PrPr Verbs, irregular verbs and categories of OE verbs

    A special group is made by the so-called Present-Preterite verbs, which are conjugated combining two varieties of the usual verb conjugation: strong and weak. These verbs, at all not more than seven, are nowadays called modal verbs in English.
    Present-Preterite verbs have their Present tense forms generated from the Strong Past, and the Past tense, instead, looks like the Present Tense of the Weak verbs. The verbs we present here are the following: witan (to know), cunnan (can), þurfan (to need), dearan (to dare), munan (to remember), sculan (shall), magan (may).
    Present of witan (= strong Past)
    Ind. Subj. Imp.
    Sg. 1 wát -
    2 wast } wite wite
    3 wát -
    Pl. witon 2 witen witaþ
    Past (= Weak)
    Ind. Subj.
    Sg.1 wisse, wiste
    2 wissest, wistest } wisse, wiste
    3 wisse, wiste
    Pl. wisson, wiston wissen, wisten
    Participles: I witende, II witen, gewiten
    cunnan (can)
    Pres. Past
    Ind. Subj. Ind. Subj.
    Sg. 1 cann cúþe
    2 canst } cunne cúþest } cúþe
    3 cann cúþe
    Pl. cunnon cunnen cúþon cúþen
    þurfan (need)
    Sg. 1 þearf þorfte
    2 þearft } þurfe þorftest } þorfte
    3 þearf þorfte
    Pl. þurfon þurfen þorfton þorften
    dearan (dare)
    Sg. 1 dear dorste
    2 dearst } durre dorstest } dorste
    3 dear dorste
    Pl. durron durren dorston dorsten
    sculan (shall)
    Sg. 1 sceal sceolde
    2 scealt } scule sceoldost } sceolde
    3 sceall sceolde
    Pl. sculon sceoldon sceolden
    munan (remember)
    Sg. 1 man munde
    2 manst } mune mundest } munde
    3 man munde
    Pl. munon munen mundon
    magan (may)
    Sg. 1 mæg meahte mihte, mihten
    2 meaht } mæge meahtest
    3 mæg meahte
    Pl. magon mægen meahton

    The main difference of verbs of this type in modern English is their expressing modality, i.e. possibility, obligation, necessity. They do not require the particle to before the infinitive which follows them. In Old English in general no verb requires this particle before the infinitive. In fact, this to before the infinitive form meant the preposition of direction.
    And now finally a few irregular verbs, which used several different stems for their tenses. These verbs are very important in Old English and are met very often in the texts: wesan (to be), béon (to be), gán (to go), dón (to do), willan (will). Mind that there was no Future tense in the Old English language, and the future action was expressed by the Present forms, just sometimes using verbs of modality, willan (lit. "to wish to do") or sculan (lit. "to have to do").
    wesan (to be) - has got only the Present tense forms, uses the verb béon in the Past
    Ind. Subj. Imp.
    Sg.1 eom -
    2 eart } síe, sý wes
    3 is -
    Pl. sind síen, sýn 2 wesaþ
    béon (to be)
    Ind. Subj. Imp.
    Sg. 1 béo -
    2 bist }béo béo
    3 biþ -
    Pl. béoþ béon 2 béoþ
    Ind. Subj.
    Sg. 1 wæs
    2 wære } wære
    3 wæs
    Pl. wæron wæren
    Participle I is béonde (being).
    gán (to go)
    Pres. Past
    Ind. Subj. Imp. Ind. Subj.
    Sg.1 gá - éode
    2 gæ'st } gá gá éodest } éode
    3 gæ'þ - éode
    Pl. gáþ 2 gán gáþ éodon éoden
    I gánde, gangende II gegán

    dón (to do)
    Pres. Past
    Ind. Subj. Imp. Ind. Subj.
    Sg. 1 dó - dyde
    2 dést } dó dó dydest } dyde
    3 déþ - dyde
    Pl. dóþ dón 2 dóþ dydon dyden
    I dónde II gedón
    Pres. Past
    Ind. Subj. Ind. Subj.
    Sg.1 wille wolde
    2 wilt } wille woldest } wolde
    3 wile wolde
    Pl. willaþ willen woldon wolden
    Participle I willende
    So there were in fact two verbs meaning 'to be', and both were colloquial. In Middle English, however, the verb wesan replaced fully the forms of béon, and the words béo (I am), bist (thou art) fell out of use. The Past tense forms was and were are also derivatives from wesan.
    A little bit more about Old English tenses. Syntactically, the language had only two main tenses - the Present and the Past. No progressive (or Continuous) tenses were used, they were invented only in the Early Middle English period. Such complex tenses as modern Future in the Past, Future Perfect Continuous did not exist either. However, some analytic construction were in use, and first of all the perfective constructions. The example Hie geweorc geworhten hæfdon 'they have build a fortress' shows the exact Perfect tense, but at that time it was not the tense really, just a participle construction showing that the action has been done. Seldom you can also find such Past constructions, which later became the Past Perfect Tense.
    Категория: Древнеанглийский язык | Добавил: Admin (11.10.2011)
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