Men and women … the same
level of sadness while watching tearjerkers like Titanic - but women are more
likely to … for a box of tissues. That is the conclusion of Vanderbilt
University psychologist Ann Kring, whose findings … sex differences in emotion
have appeared in the American Psychological Association's Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology.
"It is incorrect to
make a … statement that women are more emotional than men," she says.
"It is correct to say that women show their emotions more than men."
Kring conducted two studies
- one to determine … women are "more emotional" or just "more
expressive", and the other to explore whether gender roles …for expressive
differences between women and men. In both, women were shown to be more … expressive
of both positive and negative emotions.
In both studies, university
students were brought individually into a laboratory setting and told that they
were participating in a study of the psychology of movies and .. aspect of a
movie draws people into the plot (to prevent them from modifying their
behaviour). Subjects were then secretly videotaped. In addition, electrodes
were … to their hands to monitor palm-sweating - a measure of emotion. They
were later given a self-report survey on expressivity.
"We decided to see if
maybe sex isn't the important variable in emotional expressiveness since there
are such … stereotypes about sex and emotion," says Kring. "Maybe
it's not sex that contributes to these emotion differences, but something
called gender role."
Feminine gender roles
traditionally include such … as being
nurturing, affectionate, warm and caring, while masculine characteristics are
generally the opposite: aggressive, powerful and assertive.
Significantly, both male
and female participants endorsing a high number of characteristics
traditionally associated with both masculinity and femininity were more
facially expressive. They also reported having a more expressive disposition
than participants … only a high number of either masculine or feminine