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    темы по английскому языку для школы

                              BRITISH EDUCATION


         British education enables us to develop the abilities of individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling takes place between the ages of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at school for 2 more years to prepare for further higher education. Post-school education is organized flexibly, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic and vacational education and to continue studying throughout life.
         Administration of  state  schools  is   decentralised.   The

    department of  education  and science is responsible for national

    education policy,  but it doesn't run  any  schools,  if  doesn't

    employ teachers, or prescribe carriculum or textbooks. All schools

    are given a considerable amount of freedom.  According to the law

    only one subject is compulsory. That is a religious instruction.

         Children recieve preschool education under the age of  5  at

    nursery schools or in infant classes at primary schools.

         Most pupils receive free education financed from public funds

    and the small proportions attend independent schools. Most

    independent schools are single-sex,  but  the  number  of  mixed

    schools is growing.

         Education within  the  maintained  school   system   usually

    comprises two  stages:  primary and secondary education.  Primary

    schools are  subdivided  into  infant  schools (ages  5 - 7), and

    junior  schools  (ages  7 - 11).  Infant schools are informal and

    children are encouraged to read,  write and make use  of  numbers

    and develop creative abilities. Primary children do all their

    work with the same class teacher except for PT and Music. The work

    is based upon the pupils' interests as far as possible.

         The junior stage extends over four years. Children have  set

    periods of arithmetic,  reading,  composition,  history, geography

    nature study and others.  At this stage of schooling pupils  were

    often placed in A, B, C and D streams  according to their abilities.

    The most capable children were put in the A stream, the least capable in

    the D  stream.  Till  recently most junior school children had to

    prepare for the eleven-plus examination.  It usually consisted of an

    arithmetic paper and an intelligence test.

         According to the results of the exam children  are  sent  to

    Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools.

         So called comprehnsive schools began to appear after  World

    War 2.  They are normally mixed schools which can provide education

    for over 1000 pupils.  Ideally they provide all the courses given

    in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools.

         The law says that all children  must  receive  full-time  education between the  ages  of 5 and 16.  Formally each child can remain at school for the next 2 or 3 years and continue his or her studies in the

    sixth form  up  to  the  age  of 18 or 19.  The course is usually

    subdivided into the lower 6 and the upper 6.  The  carriculum  is

    narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3.

         The main  examinations  for  secondary  school  pupils   are

    general  certificate  of education (the GCE) exam and certificate

    of secondary education (the CSE) exam.  The GSE exam is  held  at

    two levels:  ordinary  level  (0  level)  and  advanced  level (A


         Candidates set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years old.  GCE

    level is usually taken at the end on  the  sixth  form.  The  CSE

    level exam  is  taken after 5 years of secondary education by the

    pupils who are of average abilities at their age.




                            MY FUTURE PROFESSION

         What I  would  like  to  become?  This  question  pasels  me

    greatly. Every job has its elements of difficulties and interest.

    I think that nearly all the professions  are  very  important  in

    life.  But  to  choose  the  right  occupation is very difficult,

    because we must take in to consideration many  factors.  We  must

    consider  our  personal  taste and our kind of mind.  At the same

    time we must satisfy the requirements of our society and  peoples

    needs in one profession or another.

         The end of school is the beginning of an  independent  life,

    the  beginning  of  a more serious examination.  In order to pass

    that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will

    help  us  best  to  live  and  work.  Each boy and girl has every

    opportunity to develop  mind  and  use  knowledge  and  education

    received  at  school.  Some  may  prefer  to work in factories or

    works, others want to go  into  construction:  to  take  part  in

    building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work

    and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of  the  society

    and your  own  personal  interest are offered in the sfere of the

    services transport, communications and many others.

         I have  a  specially  liking for to became a programmist.  I

    like this profession because it very interest.



                           ART GALLEREYS OF LONDON


        Speaking about art gallereys of London we should first of all

    mention  The  national gallery,  The national portret galerey and

    The tate gallery. I would like to tell you about National portret

    gallery and about Tate gallery.

         The national gallery houses one  of  the  richest  and  most

    extensive collections of painting in the world.  It stands to the

    north of the Trafalgar Square.  the  gallerey  was  desighned  by

    William  Wilkins and build in 1834-37.  The collection covers all

    schools and periods of painting,  but is a specially  famous  for

    it's  examples  of  Rembrant and Rubents.  The british schools is

    only moderately  represented  as  the  national  collections  are

    shared with the Tate gallerey.  The National gallerey was founded

    in 1824  when  the  government  bought  the  collection  of  John

    Angerstein which included 38 paintings.

         The Tate gallery houses the national collection  of  british

    painting  from  the 16-th century to the present day.  It is also

    the national gallerey for  modern  art,  including  painting  and

    sculpture made in Britain,  Europe,  America and other countries.

    It was opened in 1897 as the national gallerey of british art. It

    owes  it's establishment to Suie Henritate who built the gallerey

    and gave his own collection of 65 painting.


                               ART IN MOSCOW



         Speaking about art gallereys of Moscow we must  mention  the

    most famous gallereys.

         The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best known picture

    gallereys  in Russia.  It takes it's name from it's founder Pavel

    Tretyakov, a Moscow mercant. In the 19'th century Tretyakov began

    to  collect russian paintings.  He visitet all the exibitions and

    art studios and  bought  the  best  pictures.  Little  by  little

    Tretyakov  extended  his  interests  and began to collect earlier

    Russian paintings.  In 1881 Tretyakov opened in St.  Peterburg to

    the  public,  11 years later he donated it to the city of Moscow.

    Since then the gallerey has received hundred paintings from  oter

    museums and private collections.  The Tretyakov gallerey reflects

    the whole history of Russian paintings from 11'th century to  the

    present day.

         Also I'd like to tell you about state pushkin museum of fine

    art. The building was built in Greek stile by Roman Klein in 1898

    - 1912 to house a museum of fine art,  founded of  initiative  of

    professor Ivan Cvetayev. Since 1937 it has be known as The Puskin

    museum of fine art.  It has one of  the  worlds  largest  ancient

    collections of european art.  Now the picture gallerey has over 2

    thousands works of various schools of painting which enaibous  us

    to  understand  and  appreciate  the  variaty of staills over the


         The Pushkin  museum pereodically hald's exibition of the art

    of various countries and of individual outstanding artist of past

    and present.



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