British education enables us to develop the abilities of individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling takes place between the ages of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at school for 2 more years to prepare for further higher education. Post-school education is organized flexibly, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic and vacational education and to continue studying throughout life.
Administration of state schools is decentralised. The
department of education and science is responsible for national
education policy, but it doesn't run any schools, if doesn't
employ teachers, or prescribe carriculum or textbooks. All schools
are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law
only one subject is compulsory. That is a religious instruction.
Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 at
nursery schools or in infant classes at primary schools.
Most pupils receive free education financed from public funds
and the small proportions attend independent schools. Most
independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixed
schools is growing.
Education within the maintained school system usually
comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary
schools are subdivided into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and
junior schools (ages 7 - 11). Infant schools are informal and
children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers
and develop creative abilities. Primary children do all their
work with the same class teacher except for PT and Music. The work
is based upon the pupils' interests as far as possible.
The junior stage extends over four years. Children have set
periods of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography
nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were
often placed in A, B, C and D streams according to their abilities.
The most capable children were put in the A stream, the least capable in
the D stream. Till recently most junior school children had to
prepare for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an
arithmetic paper and an intelligence test.
According to the results of the exam children are sent to
Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools.
So called comprehnsive schools began to appear after World
War 2. They are normally mixed schools which can provide education
for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given
in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools.
The law says that all children must receive full-time education between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain at school for the next 2 or 3 years and continue his or her studies in the
sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually
subdivided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The carriculum is
narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3.
The main examinations for secondary school pupils are
general certificate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate
of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at
two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A
Candidates set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years old. GCE
level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE
level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the
pupils who are of average abilities at their age.
MY FUTURE PROFESSION
What I would like to become? This question pasels me
greatly. Every job has its elements of difficulties and interest.
I think that nearly all the professions are very important in
life. But to choose the right occupation is very difficult,
because we must take in to consideration many factors. We must
consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. At the same
time we must satisfy the requirements of our society and peoples
needs in one profession or another.
The end of school is the beginning of an independent life,
the beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass
that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will
help us best to live and work. Each boy and girl has every
opportunity to develop mind and use knowledge and education
received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or
works, others want to go into construction: to take part in
building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work
and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society
and your own personal interest are offered in the sfere of the
services transport, communications and many others.
I have a specially liking for to became a programmist. I
like this profession because it very interest.
ART GALLEREYS OF LONDON
Speaking about art gallereys of London we should first of all
mention The national gallery, The national portret galerey and
The tate gallery. I would like to tell you about National portret
gallery and about Tate gallery.
The national gallery houses one of the richest and most
extensive collections of painting in the world. It stands to the
north of the Trafalgar Square. the gallerey was desighned by
William Wilkins and build in 1834-37. The collection covers all
schools and periods of painting, but is a specially famous for
it's examples of Rembrant and Rubents. The british schools is
only moderately represented as the national collections are
shared with the Tate gallerey. The National gallerey was founded
in 1824 when the government bought the collection of John
Angerstein which included 38 paintings.
The Tate gallery houses the national collection of british
painting from the 16-th century to the present day. It is also
the national gallerey for modern art, including painting and
sculpture made in Britain, Europe, America and other countries.
It was opened in 1897 as the national gallerey of british art. It
owes it's establishment to Suie Henritate who built the gallerey
and gave his own collection of 65 painting.
ART IN MOSCOW
Speaking about art gallereys of Moscow we must mention the
most famous gallereys.
The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best known picture
gallereys in Russia. It takes it's name from it's founder Pavel
Tretyakov, a Moscow mercant. In the 19'th century Tretyakov began
to collect russian paintings. He visitet all the exibitions and
art studios and bought the best pictures. Little by little
Tretyakov extended his interests and began to collect earlier
Russian paintings. In 1881 Tretyakov opened in St. Peterburg to
the public, 11 years later he donated it to the city of Moscow.
Since then the gallerey has received hundred paintings from oter
museums and private collections. The Tretyakov gallerey reflects
the whole history of Russian paintings from 11'th century to the
Also I'd like to tell you about state pushkin museum of fine
art. The building was built in Greek stile by Roman Klein in 1898
- 1912 to house a museum of fine art, founded of initiative of
professor Ivan Cvetayev. Since 1937 it has be known as The Puskin
museum of fine art. It has one of the worlds largest ancient
collections of european art. Now the picture gallerey has over 2
thousands works of various schools of painting which enaibous us
to understand and appreciate the variaty of staills over the
The Pushkin museum pereodically hald's exibition of the art
of various countries and of individual outstanding artist of past