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    Translation is a mean of interlingual communication. The translator makes possible an exchange of information between users of different languages by producing in the target language a text which has an identical communicative value with the source text. This target text is not fully identical with the source text as to its form originality content due to the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the source language and target text.

    National coloring of the work is one of examples of these differences. Now it is one of important themes to be studied/ During many years the USSR’s confines were closed and we had not much opportunity to interact with many foreign countries. Of course, we had a great number of foreign books but most of them were either classic books or books of working class. So we had not opportunity to value all the literature of foreign countries. the same case was in the foreign countries when they could not get all the variety of Russian literature. They also preferred to read our classics. The result of it was that they could know only archaic coloring of the works and they had little information about national coloring of Russia. And now then USSR does not exist any more every state that was a part of the USSR can perform its own literature and hence national coloring.

    Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать | Просмотров: 3047 | Добавил: f531 | Дата: 26.07.2009 | Комментарии (0)

    Ecological problems

    The Earth is the only planet in the solar system where there is life. If you look down at the Earth from a plane you will see how wonderful our planet is. You will see blue seas and oceans, rivers and lakes, high snow-capped mountains, green forests and fields. For centuries man lived in harmony with nature until industrialization brought human society into conflict with the natural environment. Today, the contradictions between man and nature have acquired a dramatic character. With the development of civilization man’s interference in nature has increased. Every year the world’s industry pollutes the atmosphere with millions of tons of dust and other harmful substances. The seas and rivers are poisoned with industrial waste, chemical and sewage discharge. People who live in big cities are badly affected by harmful discharge from plants and city transport and by the increasing noise level which is as bad for human health as lack of fresh air and clean water.

    Несомненно, что знакомясь с иностранным зыком, усваивая, изучая его, человек одновременно проникает в новую национальную культуру, получает огромное духовное богатство, хранимое изучаемым языком.

    В частности, русский школьник, студент, простой обыватель, осваивая иностранный язык, в данном случае английский, получает высокоэффективную возможность приобщиться к национальной культуре и истории народа Великобритании.

    Фразеология, как неотъемлемая часть и своеобразная сокровищница любого языка мира, может особенно сильно способствовать этому приобщению.

    Фразеологизмы и фразеологические сочетания отражают многовековую историю английского народа, своеобразие его культуры, быта, традиций. Поэтому фразеологизмы – высоко информативные единицы английского языка.


    Для удобства изложения в этом же разделе рассматриваете употребление этих глаголов в качестве модальных и смысловых.

    Вспомогательные глаголы - это такие глаголы, с помощью которых образуются сложные глагольные формы. Вспомогательные глаголы не имеют своего самостоятельного лексического значения и служат лишь показателем времени, залога, наклонения и в некоторых случаях—лица и числа смыслового глагола, с которым они употребляются.

    К вспомогательным глаголам относятся глаголы: to be, to have, to do, shall, should, will, would.

    Глаголы to be, to have, shall, should, will, would употребляются и в модальном значении, а глаголы to be, to have, to do употребляются, кроме того, как смысловые глаголы.

    Mounting the Guards.

    Mounting the Guard is an-other colourf ul ceremony. It takes place at the Horse Guards, in Whitehall, at 11 a.m. every weekday and at 10 a.m. on Sundays. It always attracts sight seers. The Guard is a detachment of Cavalry troops and consists of the Royal Horse Guards and the Life Guards. The Royal Horse Guards wear deep-blue tu-nics and ivhite metal helmets with red horsehair plumes, and have black sheep-skin saddles. The Life Guards wear scarlet uniforms and white metal helmets with ivhite horsehair plumes, and have white sheep-skin saddles. Both the Royal Horse Guards and the Life Guards wear steel cuirasses - body armour that reaches down to the waist and consists of a breastplate and a backplate fastened together. The ceremony begins with the trumpeters sounding the call. The new guard arrives and the old guard is relieved. The two officers, also on horseback, salute each other and then stand side by side while the guard is changed. The ceremony lasts fifteen minutes and ends with the old guard returning to its barracks. 

    Public holidays in Great Britain

    There are only six public holidays a year in Great Britain, that is days on which people need not go in to work. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Spring Bank Holiday and Late Summer Bank Holiday.

    In Scotland, the New Year's Day is also a public holiday. Most of these holidays are of religious origin, though it would be right to say that for the greater part of the population they have long lost their religious significance and simply days on which people relax, eat, drink and make merry.

    All the public holidays, except Christmas Day and Boxing Day observed on December 25th and 26th respectively, are movable, that is they do not fall on the same day each year. Good Friday and Easter Monday depend on Easter Sunday which falls on the first Sunday after a full moon on or after March 21st. The Spring Bank Holiday falls on the last Monday of May or on the first Monday of June, while the Late Summer Bank Holiday comes on the last Monday in August or on the first Monday in September, depending on which of the Mondays is nearer to June 1st and September 1st respectively.

    USA Holidays

    Holiday is a day set apart for religious observance or for the commemoration of some extraordinary event or distinguished person, or for some other public occasion.

    National holidays are days set aside by official government proclamation to celebrate different occasions.

    The U.S. has no national holidays. Legal holidays – days on which banks, schools, or other public institutions and most places of business are closed.

    Customs and traditions of English speaking countries

    Every country and every nation has it's own traditions and customs. It's very important to know traditions and customs of different people. It will help you to know more about the history and life of different nations and countries.

    One cannot speak about England without speaking about it's traditions and customs .They are very important in the life of English people .Englishman are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up.

    There are six public holidays a year in G.B. Christmas day is one of their favorite holidays .It's celebrated on the 25-th of December. There are some traditions connected with it. One of them is to give presents to each other. It is not only children and members of family. It's a tradition to give Christmas presents to the people you work with.

    Presents in Russia are generally a thing intended to be shrouded in mystery and surprise. In America, it is not uncommon to simply request what you want from family or friends and to receive it without ceremony. This is unthinkable in our tradition. It is a vital element of the present that it is picked out by the person giving it, that it is sincere and comes from the heart. It is also important to be surprised; advance knowledge of your present defeats the entire purpose. Presents are generally things of quality but modest in quantity; it would be considered extremely poor form to have a "wish list" or a "Christmas list" or something so pretentious. Likewise, giving money would be regarded as very blunt, offensive and unrefined. Simply giving someone the means to buy themselves a present is contrary to the entire purpose.

    Until recently the history of the English theatre has been build around actors rather then companies. It has been hard to find any London theatre that even had a consistent policy. There are no permanent staff in British theatres. Apply is rehearsed for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it draws the odious and pays it's way.

    Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is an follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked an advanced (bookable), and unbookable once have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the principal: first come - first served. And ancient times plays were acted inside churches and later on the market places.

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