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    Mounting the Guards.

    Mounting the Guard is an-other colourf ul ceremony. It takes place at the Horse Guards, in Whitehall, at 11 a.m. every weekday and at 10 a.m. on Sundays. It always attracts sight seers. The Guard is a detachment of Cavalry troops and consists of the Royal Horse Guards and the Life Guards. The Royal Horse Guards wear deep-blue tu-nics and ivhite metal helmets with red horsehair plumes, and have black sheep-skin saddles. The Life Guards wear scarlet uniforms and white metal helmets with ivhite horsehair plumes, and have white sheep-skin saddles. Both the Royal Horse Guards and the Life Guards wear steel cuirasses - body armour that reaches down to the waist and consists of a breastplate and a backplate fastened together. The ceremony begins with the trumpeters sounding the call. The new guard arrives and the old guard is relieved. The two officers, also on horseback, salute each other and then stand side by side while the guard is changed. The ceremony lasts fifteen minutes and ends with the old guard returning to its barracks. 

    Рефераты, курсовые, дипломные по английскому языку скачать | Просмотров: 4146 | Добавил: f531 | Дата: 26.07.2009 | Комментарии (0)

    Public holidays in Great Britain

    There are only six public holidays a year in Great Britain, that is days on which people need not go in to work. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Spring Bank Holiday and Late Summer Bank Holiday.

    In Scotland, the New Year's Day is also a public holiday. Most of these holidays are of religious origin, though it would be right to say that for the greater part of the population they have long lost their religious significance and simply days on which people relax, eat, drink and make merry.

    All the public holidays, except Christmas Day and Boxing Day observed on December 25th and 26th respectively, are movable, that is they do not fall on the same day each year. Good Friday and Easter Monday depend on Easter Sunday which falls on the first Sunday after a full moon on or after March 21st. The Spring Bank Holiday falls on the last Monday of May or on the first Monday of June, while the Late Summer Bank Holiday comes on the last Monday in August or on the first Monday in September, depending on which of the Mondays is nearer to June 1st and September 1st respectively.

    USA Holidays

    Holiday is a day set apart for religious observance or for the commemoration of some extraordinary event or distinguished person, or for some other public occasion.

    National holidays are days set aside by official government proclamation to celebrate different occasions.

    The U.S. has no national holidays. Legal holidays – days on which banks, schools, or other public institutions and most places of business are closed.

    Customs and traditions of English speaking countries

    Every country and every nation has it's own traditions and customs. It's very important to know traditions and customs of different people. It will help you to know more about the history and life of different nations and countries.

    One cannot speak about England without speaking about it's traditions and customs .They are very important in the life of English people .Englishman are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up.

    There are six public holidays a year in G.B. Christmas day is one of their favorite holidays .It's celebrated on the 25-th of December. There are some traditions connected with it. One of them is to give presents to each other. It is not only children and members of family. It's a tradition to give Christmas presents to the people you work with.

    Presents in Russia are generally a thing intended to be shrouded in mystery and surprise. In America, it is not uncommon to simply request what you want from family or friends and to receive it without ceremony. This is unthinkable in our tradition. It is a vital element of the present that it is picked out by the person giving it, that it is sincere and comes from the heart. It is also important to be surprised; advance knowledge of your present defeats the entire purpose. Presents are generally things of quality but modest in quantity; it would be considered extremely poor form to have a "wish list" or a "Christmas list" or something so pretentious. Likewise, giving money would be regarded as very blunt, offensive and unrefined. Simply giving someone the means to buy themselves a present is contrary to the entire purpose.

    Until recently the history of the English theatre has been build around actors rather then companies. It has been hard to find any London theatre that even had a consistent policy. There are no permanent staff in British theatres. Apply is rehearsed for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it draws the odious and pays it's way.

    Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is an follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked an advanced (bookable), and unbookable once have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the principal: first come - first served. And ancient times plays were acted inside churches and later on the market places.

    При лексических заменах происходит замена отдельных конкретных слов  или словосочетаний исходного языка словами или словосочетаниями языка перевода, которые не являются их словарными соответствиями, то есть имеют иное лексическое значение, нежели слова исходного языка.

    Особенности контекста могут вынудить переводчика отказаться в переводе от применения даже вариантного соответствия, не говоря уже об  эквивалентном соответствии.

    В подобном случде он подыскивает вариант перевода, подходящий лишь для данного конкретного случая. Такой вариант перевода называют контекстуальной заменой.

    Характер контекстуальной замены целиком зависит от особенностей индивидуального контекста, и переводчику приходится каждый раз искать особые пути перевода. Эта задача требует творческого решения, и в  большинстве подобных случаев переводчик может руководствоваться лишь общими принципами перевода. Тем не менее, имеется ряд переводческих приёмов, используемых, в основном, для создания контекстуальных  замен.


    One of the long-established misconceptions about the lexicon is that it is neatly and rigidly divided into semantically related sets of words. In contrast, we claim that word meanings do not have clear boundaries.1 In this paper we will give proof of the fuzziness of meaning through an analysis of the semantic field of MOVEMENT in the English language. We will show that many MOVEMENT verbs belong not only to several subdomains within the field of MOVEMENT, but also to various semantic domains through metaphorical extension.

    Before dealing with the double or even triple membership of MOVEMENT verbs, let us first present the model on which our description of the lexicon is based, the Functional-Lexematic Model (Martнn Mingorance, 1984, 1985a,b; 1987a,b,c; 1990a,b).


    Вербальному поведению человека свойствен не только окказиональный, но и рекуррентный, повторяющийся характер, что находит отражение, в частности, в наличии в языке разного рода стандартизированных выражений, готовых фраз, предложений формулообразного характера и т.д.

    Становится ясным, что эффективное использование языка человеком в целях его общения с другими людьми опирается как на его речетворческие способности, так и на способность автоматически воспроизводить в готовом виде в соответствующих ситуациях общения те элементы языка, которые хранятся в его языковом сознании и специально для этого предназначены.

    Современный английский язык изобилует такими образованиями варьирующейся степени устойчивости, специализирующимися на выражении разного рода коммуникативных значений: приветствия, извинения, благодарности, поздравления, отказа, согласия, просьбы и т. д. Кроме этого, они способны также выполнять коммуникативную организующую и текстоорганизующую роль, что также связано с говорящим, исходит от него, обусловлено его конкретным намерением.

    The inspiration for environmental ethics was the first Earth Day in 1970 when environmentalists started urging philosophers who were involved with environmental groups to do something about environmental ethics. An intellectual climate had developed in the last few years of the 1960s in large part because of the publication of two papers in Science: Lynn White`s "The Historical Roots of our Ecological Crisis” (March 1967) and Garett Hardin`s "The Tragedy of the Commons" (December 1968). Most influential with regard to this kind of thinking, however, was an essay in Aldo Leopold`s A Sand County Almanac, "The Land Ethic," in which Leopold explicitly claimed that the roots of the ecological crisis were philosophical. Although originally published in 1949, Sand County Almanac became widely available in 1970 in a special Sierra Club/Ballantine edition, which included essays from a second book, Round River.

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