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    Улисс Грант

    Эту статью мне посоветовала моя подруга, которая обожает смотреть http://1serial.tv/, поэтому ей очень нравится сайт, на котором можно найти любой интересующий вас сериал. For more than 40 years Ulysses S. Grant knew failure on intimate terms. He excelled in the army his first time around but quit amid rumors about his drunkenness; he tried farming, but harvested more calluses than crops; he tried his hand as a rent collector but had no liking for the job; he worked at his family’s store as a clerk but showed little desire to stay with it. Then the Civil War came, and he found his calling and accomplishment. Later, his heroic military record swept him into the White House. He had reached the pinnacle of Ulysses S. Grant 149 American politics, only to find himself crashing down again when his personal shortcomings exposed his presidency to graft. As it turned out, in government Grant trusted too much and commanded too little. k Ulysses S. Grant was born Hiram Ulysses Grant on April 27, 1822, in Point Pleasant, Ohio. Within a few years he would reverse his first and middle names to keep his initials from spelling "H.U.G.,” which he felt invited ridicule. When at West Point he discovered he had been admitted as Ulysses S. Grant, he accepted it as his new name. "What does the S stand for in Ulys.’s name?” he would later ask his wife about his newborn son. "In mine you know it does not stand for anything!” Grant’s father, Jesse, was a tanner who as a Whig frequently expressed his political views in letters to local newspapers. His mother, Hannah Simpson Grant, came from a farming family and was known for her strong character. When Ulysses was 18 months old, the Grants moved to Georgetown, Ohio, where Jesse could find plenty of tanning bark in the deep midwestern forest. The Grants lived in a small brick house close to the tannery, and the stench from slaughtered animals and processed hides filled Ulysses’ bedroom. He grew to hate the noisome air and the blood. Although Jesse provided well for his family, he feared slipping into poverty, a fear his son inherited and constantly fought as an adult. Ulysses attended public schools in Georgetown before enrolling at the Richardson and Rand Academy in Maysville, Kentucky, in 1836 and then transferring to a school in Ripley, Ohio, in 1838. He was a mediocre student who preferred horseback riding to scholarship. Jesse Grant worried about his son’s indifference toward school and dislike for the tannery. Without telling Ulysses, he decided to ask his local congressman to appoint the youngster to West Point. The congressman agreed, and when Ulysses got the news, he accepted it with only mild protest. Even though he had no burning desire to join the military, he saw the appointment as a means to get away from home. Ulysses arrived at West Point in 1839, a 5’1” 17-year-old with sandy brown hair and freckled skin. He easily passed the entrance exam, and as a student he presided over the cadet literary society. He showed his talent with horses when he set an academy equestrian highjump record that stood for 25 years. His casual manner—he disliked discipline— resulted in several demerits for slovenly dress and tardiness. He graduated in 1843 ranked 21st in a class of 39 and was named brevet second lieutenant in the Fourth U.S. Infantry stationed at Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis, Missouri. In St. Louis, Grant met Julia Dent, the daughter of a plantation owner. Strong-willed and physical, she liked to fish, hunt, and ride horseback as much as he did. She looked homely— Grant once said he found her crossed eyes attractive—but they fell in love and were soon engaged. They waited to marry, however, while Grant served at army posts in Louisiana and Texas and then in the U.S.-Mexican War. On May 3, 1846, Ulysses S. Grant heard his first shots of battle when, some 25 miles distant from where he was stationed, Mexican artillery fired on American troops north of the Rio Grande, and the Americans responded in kind. Grant thought the U.S.-Mexican War was a mistake, a result of American greed to obtain land for slavery. In referring to the role played by the army to make Mexico look like the aggressor, he said in his memoirs: "We were sent to provoke a fight, but it was essential that Mexico should commence it.” He once referred to the American Civil War as punishment for the way the United States had hurt Mexico. For all his misgivings, he compiled an admirable war record. At Resaca de la Palma he led an assault, even though as a quartermaster he had no company to command. He participated in another assault at Monterrey before proceeding to Mexico City, where he and a few 150 Ulysses S. Grant other men set up a howitzer in a bell tower near the town’s gates. Grant’s service in the U.S.-Mexican War ended in 1848. That year Grant and Julia married, concluding their long engagement and their long time away from each other. Over the years, any lengthy separation caused them both to suffer (and often drove Ulysses to drink). A strong family man, Grant lavished love on his wife and their four children. The army next stationed Grant at Sackets Harbor, New York, before sending him to the West Coast. During that trip, while still serving as a quartermaster, he led a regiment across the Isthmus of Panama in 1852. When many of his men died of yellow fever, the Panama Herald excoriated him. "With Quartermaster GRANT, we have not done,” the paper said. "Unfitted by either natural ability or education for the post he occupied, he evinced his incapacity at every movement.” Grant made no public response to the Herald’s exaggerated attack. He served at Fort Vancouver in the northwest and then at Fort Humboldt in California, an isolated outpost that, combined with an intolerable commander, made him miserable. Grant’s distance from Julia and his children, Fred and baby Ulysses, whom he had not yet seen, depressed him. He wrote his wife: "I am almost crazy sometimes to see Fred,” and, "I dreamed of you and our little boys the other night. . . .” He turned to the bottle, and when he resigned from the army in 1854 after receiving a promotion to captain, rumors attributed his departure to heavy drinking. Yet no notice of drunkenness ever appeared on his official record. Jesse Grant desperately tried to convince the army to reject his son’s resignation, for he feared, and rightly so, that Ulysses would be lost—what could he possibly do for a living? For a short time he worked as a farmer on land near St. Louis owned by his brother-in-law. In 1855 he built his own home, a log house he called Hardscrabble. Although he used slave labor (he owned one slave, his wife owned four, and he borrowed others), he experienced only hardship. In 1858 he gave up the farm to work as a rent collector in St. Louis for one of Julia’s cousins. Temperamentally unfit for the job, he failed again. Thirty-seven years old and desperate, he was forced to ask Jesse Grant for help. In summer 1860 Ulysses Grant moved to Galena, Illinois, where he clerked in his father’s leather goods store. Eventually Grant may have become a partner, and at one point he even said, "Our business here is prosperous and I have evry [sic] reason to hope, in a few years, to be entirely above the frowns of the world, pecuniarily.” But in truth he disliked his job. According to a Grant biographer, William S. McFeely, townspeople talked about his "vacant expression as he went down the long, long flight of stairs to work and climbed back up them to his house at the end of the day.” War saved Grant. Though he never praised or extolled it, he knew warfare gave his life meaning and raised him above the ordinary. After the South fired on Fort Sumter in April 1861, Galena’s residents chose Grant to preside over their town meeting. His vacant expression disappeared, and one neighbor said: "I saw energies in Grant. . . . He dropped a stoop shouldered way of walking, and set his hat forward on his forehead in a careless fashion.” He began enlisting men as volunteers to fight in the war and then drilled them. Although he refused to seek a commission aggressively, he did contact some officers he had known in the army, and through the help of his local congressman, Elihu B. Washburne, he obtained rank as a colonel. In summer 1861 Ulysses S. Grant led the 21st Illinois Regiment into Missouri, a strategically important state with its border on the Mississippi River and its commercial center at St. Louis. Early in February 1862 Grant joined his force, numbering 17,000 men, with the U.S. Navy for a successful assault on Fort Henry, Kentucky, along the Tennessee River. Soon after, he attacked Fort Donelson in Tennessee, where he trapped 11,500 rebels. When the Confederate commander asked for Ulysses S. Grant 151 terms of surrender, Grant replied: "Sir: Yours of this date proposing an armistice and appointment of Commissioners to settle terms of capitulation is just received. No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. I propose to move immediately upon your works.” With that tough stand Grant earned a nickname. His first and middle initials, "U” and "S,” said newspaper stories, stood for "Unconditional Surrender.” As Grant continued to march through Tennessee, General Henry Halleck thought him too independent and in spring 1862 stripped him of his command. Although he had good reason to criticize Grant, who distrusted almost everyone but himself in battle, Halleck’s complaint came more from jealousy than anything else; he feared his colleague might surpass him and be appointed commander in the West. After Congressman Washburne interceded on Grant’s behalf and President Lincoln appointed Halleck to the post he desired, Grant was reinstated. "Instead of relieving you,” Halleck wrote Grant, "I wish you, as soon as your new army is in the field to . . . lead it on to new victories.” In April 1862 Grant commanded his men in battle at Shiloh, Tennessee. Historian Bruce Catton has said, "The entire war had no fighting more terrible than the fighting which took place here.” Shiloh resulted from a Confederate assault that took Grant off guard, and the two days of combat produced no real changes to the military map. It did, however, leave behind a bloody legend: 1,723 Southern soldiers dead, 1,754 Northern soldiers dead, and more casualties than in the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, and U.S.-Mexican War combined. Shiloh convinced Grant the war would be a long one and that the North would have to destroy the Confederate army completely to win. After critics blamed him for losing so many men, he commented, "I have been so shockingly abused that I sometimes think it almost time to defend myself.” But he said little and believed his record should speak for itself. Despite the criticism, he emerged from Shiloh a hero. Northern newspapers called Grant a great general, for unlike other Union military leaders, he stubbornly resisted the Confederates, and he exuded noble qualities: calmness, self-control, and fortitude under fire. After Shiloh, other battles followed in which Grant humbled the Confederates by hitting them with his massive army. So many injuries and deaths swept through his ranks that some said his battles resembled charnel houses (places where dead bodies are deposited). Even Gideon Wells, Lincoln’s navy secretary and a Grant supporter, said that while Northerners had great confidence in the general, "the immense slaughter of our brave men chills and sickens us all.” Grant employed a bold strategy against Vicksburg, the vital Mississippi town located on a bluff overlooking the mighty river. He attacked in April 1863 by going around it and approaching it from the south. Other generals called the move risky, but he argued that the North needed a quick victory to boost its morale. Anxiety must have gripped Grant, for he knew that if he failed he would be ruined. Rather than a quick victory, after two unsuccessful assaults, both in May and both resulting in massive carnage, he had to settle for a weeks-long siege. Finally, on July 3 the rebels hoisted white flags. As historian Shelby Foote has written, "It was indeed a Glorious Fourth, from the northern point of view.” The conquest along the Mississippi River, completed on July 9 with the surrender of Port Hudson in Louisiana, split the western from the eastern Confederacy. After Grant won a crucial contest over the Confederates at Chattanooga, Tennessee, in November 1863, President Lincoln appointed him supreme commander of the entire Union army with the rank of lieutenant general. In May 1864 Grant led his men into the Wilderness, a dense forest near Richmond, Virginia. There he tried but failed to break Robert E. Lee’s defenses. Chaos exploded; cannon and guns turned the trees blood red; a 152 Ulysses S. Grant forest fire burned alive many of the wounded. Grant kept marching, though, and fought another frustrating battle at Spotsylvania—five days of trench warfare with more butchery. "I propose to fight it out along this line if it takes all summer,” he said. In June Grant failed to break through Confederate lines at Cold Harbor in Virginia; he later ranked the assault among his most "useless.” The rebels suffered little, but Grant lost 12,000 men in one day alone. From there he moved on to Petersburg and began the longest siege of the war. In early April 1865 Lee abandoned the city and a few days later surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse. Although Grant’s victory came in part from the superior numbers of men he could employ in battle, it also stemmed from a careful strategy to keep Lee tied down with constant attacks so that the Confederate general would be prevented from sending his men elsewhere, and a resolve to keep fighting seldom before exhibited by other Union commanders. While Grant battered Lee from the east, he sent General Philip Sheridan into the Shenandoah Valley with orders to make it a "barren waste.” General William Tecumseh Sherman was sent into Georgia, where he burned Atlanta and swept through the state to Savannah and then into the Carolinas, his army an inferno on caissons that consumed factories, warehouses, railroads, and bridges. As Northerners celebrated their victory, Grant narrowly escaped death in April 1865, when President Lincoln invited him and Julia to see a play at Ford’s Theater. Grant agreed to go, but Julia, who disliked Mrs. Lincoln, convinced him to change his mind. As a result, John Wilkes Booth, who planned to kill both Grant and Lincoln, found only one of his targets present. Grant developed an ambivalent relationship with the new president, Andrew Johnson. In 1866 Johnson commissioned him general of the army, and in 1867, after the president removed Edward Stanton as secretary of war, he chose Grant for the job. For unclear reasons, Grant accepted and stepped into a messy political battle as Johnson and Congress fought over whether the president had the authority to remove Stanton. Eventually the dispute figured prominently in Johnson’s impeachment: It was the major justification for his impeachment. Grant initially supported Johnson, but in late summer 1867 he quit his post, infuriating the president, who thought the general had agreed to remain in office while the fight with Congress continued. Johnson’s enemies, the Radicals within the Republican Party, now considered Grant a friend. Although Grant sympathized with the Radicals, he also differed with them on several issues and received his strongest boost for the presidency from moderates. His supporters included the New York Times, which portrayed him as a sympathetic and just leader. After the Democrats won more seats in Congress in 1867, many Republicans boosted Grant as the weapon needed to stop the opposing party’s advance. When the Republican National Convention opened in Chicago in 1868, it displayed all the trappings of the Civil War. A hero at Gettysburg, General Daniel E. Sickles, led the procession into the Crosby Opera House. In such an atmosphere, who else but Grant could be nominated for president? That fall Grant faced Horatio Seymour, the wartime governor of New York, as his Democratic opponent. Grant took no prominent stand on the issues and remained largely silent during the campaign. His supporters, though, rallied Americans around a banner of loyalty and portrayed the Democrats as the party of secession. "Vote As You Shot,” they urged. Few doubted Grant would win, but his popular-vote margin turned out surprisingly small, and because the white vote had divided nearly evenly, his victory was heavily reliant on the ballots of African Americans. At his inauguration in April 1869, Ulysses S. Grant alluded to Southern assaults on blacks when he called for the government to protect life and property throughout the country. A proponent of rights for African AmeriUlysses S. Grant 153 cans, he urged the states to ratify the Fifteenth Amendment, which prohibited denying persons the right to vote based on their color, and he asked Congress to reform the treatment of Indians. Grant soon disappointed those who expected him to exert firm leadership. He filled his first cabinet largely with friends and cronies, nearly all of whom lacked talent, except in their ability to deceive the president and promote their own interests. And although he called for civil service reform, he hardly pushed for it. He tenaciously fought for one project, though, when he proposed to annex the Dominican Republic to the United States. He thought that by so doing Americans would enhance their trade with the Caribbean and that the acquired land would serve as a frontier— a sort of Dakotas with mountains and palm trees—where blacks could settle and escape racism. He pursued his goal into 1870. That December he described the Dominican Republic to Congress as a "weak power, numbering probably less than 120,000 souls, and yet possessing one of the richest territories under the sun, capable of supporting a population of 10,000,000 people in luxury.” Grant’s proposal caused a rift within the Republican Party, and he pressured the Senate to remove Charles Sumner, a vindictive and obstructionist Radical, from the chairmanship of its foreign relations committee. His attempted land grab revealed a characteristic that stamped Grant’s presidency: corruption. Evidence indicated that his chief aide, Orville Babcock, had pushed hard to annex Santo Domingo because he had been given land there which, should the deal be approved, would appreciate considerably and bring him a handsome profit. The Dominican president would also fill his pockets with money from the sale of his country to the United States. Santo Domingo consumed Grant’s first term as president. A fellow Republican, Carl Schurz, met with him at the White House, and as they sat together on a sofa he told the president all the reasons why he opposed annexation. "At first the President listened to me with evident interest,” Schurz later reported. "But after a little while I noticed that his eyes wandered about the room, and I became doubtful whether he listened to me at all.” Try as Grant did, by spring 1871 his Santo Domingo project was dead. Corruption spread quickly through Grant’s presidency, showing itself in the audacious Credit Mobilier scandal, which began before Grant reached the White House. Businessmen established the Credit Mobilier Company to sell materials to firms building the Pacific railroad. They then charged inflated prices in order to reap huge profits and distributed the haul to the company’s stockholders, including congressmen who had been sold shares at bargain rates to assure their support. Although Grant had no involvement with the underhanded dealings, when the scandal broke in 1872 it mixed with other stories about greedy politicians to make his presidency appear dishonest. Some thought that corruption in America came with the Gilded Age, an era of gaudy materialism. Everything seemed to be for sale, and in Grant the purveyors of riches had a compliant president who little understood or cared about financial matters, and who believed the executive branch should accede to Congress. Two of the biggest speculators in America, James Fisk and Jay Gould, beguiled Grant. They wined and dined him aboard their yacht and tried to convince him the government should hold onto its gold reserves. Fisk and Gould wanted to corner the market for gold and knew that if the government sold its holdings the price for the precious metal would be driven down, rather than up as they desired. They went so far as to insinuate themselves with the president’s sister and established contacts within the treasury department. To Grant’s credit he defied the two manipulators and ordered the government to sell some of its gold. He did so, though, only after others exposed the plot. To many, Grant looked like a fool, or worse, his family looked like grafters. 154 Ulysses S. Grant Scandal also enveloped the New York Customhouse. Its collector, Thomas Murphy, presided over a system whereby importers paid one month’s rent for one day’s storage and the excess money found its way into private pockets. As Congress began to investigate, Grant dismissed Murphy but praised him for his "honesty.” While immersed in the scandals, Grant showed his impulse toward justice when he appointed Amos T. Akerman, a crusader for African-American civil rights, to the post of second attorney general in 1870. In 1871 Akerman convinced Grant to support the Ku Klux Klan Act then being considered by Congress. The act gave the president power to deploy the army and suspend the writ of habeas corpus should Southerners defy court rulings meant to protect black rights. Grant used the act in October when terrorists ran rampant in South Carolina, but that December he fired Akerman after some political leaders complained that Akerman’s efforts to crush the Ku Klux Klan were merely reopening Civil War wounds. President Grant achieved a diplomatic victory in 1871 when his secretary of state, Hamilton Fish, ended a dispute with Britain over damage done to American property by ships the British had provided to the Confederate navy. Under the Treaty of Washington, a tribunal awarded the United States more than $15 million. Grant’s scandalous first term repulsed some Republicans. Carl Schurz derided the presidency as a "train of officers and officemongers,” and in 1872 he and fellow liberals bolted the party and joined the Democrats in supporting Horace Greeley, a cantankerous newspaper editor, for president. The Liberal Republicans wanted civil service reform, free trade, limited government, and more lenient treatment of the South. For Grant, reelection became another Vicksburg—he had to prove himself or face ruin. He never liked the reformers and concluded they were out to get him. As he ran for a second term, he told his supporters that the Liberal Republicans appeared stronger than they were; he compared them to "the deceptive noise made in the West by prairie wolves,” who sounded like many but turned out to be few. According to historian Eugene H. Roseboom, "Never in American history have two more unfit men been offered to the country for the highest office.” Greeley lacked presence; Grant lacked sound judgment. But the Republicans hid Grant’s faults behind his heroic image, and he won by a much bigger margin than in 1868. He carried the entire North and even several states in the South. The president felt vindicated, but more criticism soon followed. In 1873 he signed a bill that raised congressional pay, gave each congressman a bonus, and doubled his own annual salary. So many protests descended on Washington that Congress rescinded the act in 1874. Grant’s readiness to sign the original bill, though, made him look greedy. Soon after that episode, stories circulated that his secretary of war, William W. Belknap, had received kickbacks from a contract he had granted for operating a post at Fort Sill in the Indian territory. As Congress investigated, Belknap resigned to thwart his impeachment. After the House impeached him anyway, the Senate refused to convict him because he had already left office. The evidence against Belknap was massive, and many congressmen believed Grant had planned Belknap’s resignation as a way to save his associate from greater embarrassment. Yet another scandal dwarfed Belknap’s graft. Well before Grant entered the White House, whiskey distillers started paying bribes to government agents to avoid the revenue tax. After 1870, 12 to 15 million gallons of whiskey avoided the levy. In February 1875 the St. Louis Democrat broke the story about a notorious Whiskey Ring—a chilling name given Grant’s problems with the bottle—and Secretary of the Treasury Benjamin H. Bristow investigated the matter. John McDonald, appointed by Grant as collector of internal revenue for the St. Louis district, turned out to be the lead culprit. Ulysses S. Grant 155 McDonald—who in 1874 presented President Grant with a "valuable pair of horses”—first confessed his role to Bristow but then became closemouthed after it appeared indictments would be handed down. As the investigation continued, Grant’s private secretary, Orville E. Babcock, himself intimately involved in the Whiskey Ring, continuously fed information to McDonald. In May 1875, the government arrested 350 government employees and businessmen. Babcock was among those arrested, but he avoided jail largely because Grant perjured himself in a court deposition when he attested to his friend’s innocence, even though he knew Babcock was guilty. Nothing indicated that Grant was involved in the graft, but he called reformers "narrow-headed men” with eyes so close together "they can look out of the same gimlet hole without winking.” In June 1876 he fired treasury secretary Bristow and several others in the department, a clear insult to those who had uncovered the Whiskey Ring. The entire episode sullied Grant and caused people to lose confidence in him. As the scandals worsened, the economy collapsed. Unemployment reached 1 million, families crowded together in tenements, and long lines formed at soup kitchens. Between 1873 and 1876 daily wages for city workers fell 25 percent; a 5 percent drop in food prices alleviated the hardship only slightly while hurting farmers. Wheat prices fell from $1.57 a bushel in 1867 to 77. in 1876. Corn prices followed a similar plunge. During the crisis, Grant sided with businessmen rather than the workers, whose votes he had earlier courted by calling himself their friend. As unions lost members, down from 300,000 in 1872 to 50,000 in 1878, he hoped for their demise, since he thought them antagonistic. In April 1874 Congress sent him a bill that many thought would help farmers and laborers by allowing the government to issue an unlimited amount of paper money, called greenbacks. But conservative business interests pressured him to veto it, and he did. According to William S. McFeely, with Grant’s act the Republican Party "was the party not of the working class but of those who were or aspired to be the capitalists.” In May 1874 Grant and his wife arranged an elaborate White House wedding for their daughter, Nellie. The food, the presents on display, the eight bridesmaids, the marine band, and the bridal gown of white satin and lace bedazzled the press and public. Capitalizing on the scandals and the economic collapse, the Democrats gained power in several large states in 1874 and swept that year’s elections for the House of Representatives. Yet Grant and his supporters entertained thoughts about his running for an unprecedented third term in 1876, until the House, in a 234-18 vote, resolved that such a move would be "unwise, unpatriotic and fraught with peril to our free institutions.” After Grant left the presidency, he took a lengthy overseas tour, the spectacular success of which served to erase the dark memories of his years in the White House. He dined with Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle and met with Bismarck in Germany. He sailed the Nile on the khedive’s own ship, obtained an audience with Pope Leo XIII at the Vatican, and dined with the czar in St. Petersburg. The Japanese emperor presented him and Julia with lacquer sitting-room furniture. When Grant returned to the United States in 1879, his friends again promoted him for the White House, but he lost the 1880 Republican nomination to James A. Garfield. Grant faced economic ruin in 1884 when he lost all his money to a brokerage firm. He refused all offers to pay off his debt and instead raised funds by writing his memoirs. A few months after beginning the project, he felt a sharp pain in his throat that turned out to be cancer, likely caused by his prodigious cigar smoking. Barely able to eat, he kept writing, often while sitting on his front porch bundled against the wind. His handwriting reduced to a scrawl, his voice gone, he finished the manuscript on July 16, 1885—295,000 words that 156 Ulysses S. Grant reviewers later called masterful. Within two years the memoirs earned $450,000 for Julia and their children, as he had hoped. Grant never saw the money; he died on July 23, 1885. Ulysses S. Grant was buried on New York’s Riverside Drive in a tomb bearing his famous utterance, "Let us have peace.” Yet success for Grant depended on war; in peace he proved incompetent, both as a businessman and a president. In politics he trusted too much those who pretended to be his friends but who wanted only to fill their own pockets; and when reformers exposed treachery, he reacted by defending the treacherous. The scandals and greed that swamped Grant’s presidency came as much from the decadent society around him as from his own failings. Walt Whitman wrote: "I say that our New World democracy, however great a success in uplifting the masses . . . is so far an almost complete failure . . . in really grand religious, moral, literary and esthetic results.” He said that with territorial growth America was "being endowed with a vast and more thoroughly appointed body” but "left with little or no soul.” To a large extent, Grant’s presidency left grand moral designs in tatters and the national
    soul empty.

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