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    Pre Intermediate [18]

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    Test 4

    Infinitives/ -ing Forms


    1. Fill each blank, choosing between infinitives with or without to:


    1.      Lenny’s father let him________the family car (drive).

    2.      Do you want me_________that shop’s address for you (copy)?

    3.      Let’s tell the taxi driver_________for us here (wait).

    4.      Will this nasty weather make you__________your plans (change)?

    5.      We’d better___________about it (forget).

    6.      Perhaps we should request the professor_________a bit louder (speak).


    2. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian paying attention to the infinitive of purpose.


    1.      All was done to save him.

    2.      He called for his car to take us  to the station.

    3.      He went to the library to take the journals and books he needs for his English exam.

    4.      She always has a walk in the evening to sleep better at night.

    5.      He was walking slowly in order not to fall down.

    6.      I wrote a letter to him to remind him of his promise.


    3. Translate from Russian into English paying attention to the infinitive after adjectives.


    1.      Очень глупо с его стороны было вести себя подобным образом.

    2.      С ней трудно иметь дело.

    3.      Он очень изменился. Его трудно узнать.

    4.      Было уже слишком поздно, чтобы менять что-нибудь.

    5.      Любезно с вашей стороны помочь мне.

    6.      Он боялся забыть о своем обещании.


    4. Insert to where necessary before the infinitive in brackets.


    1.      He made me (do) it all over the world.

    2.      He will be able (swim) very soon.

    3.      You ought (go) today. It may (rain) tomorrow .

    4.      Visitors are  asked (not feed) the animals.

    5.      I advised him (ask) the bus conductor (tell) him where (get) off.

    6.      Did you remember (give) him the money? – No, I didn’t, I still have it in my pocket; but I’ll (see) him tonight and I promise (not forget) this time.


    5. Fill in correct form of the verb in brackets (to –infinitive or –ing form), as in the examples.


    1. He goes to evening classes to learn (learn) Italian.
    2. Learning (learn) a Ianguage can help you to get a job.
    3. Oh no! I forgot _______(buy) eggs when I was at the supermarket.
    4. The government is determined __________(solve) some of the environmental problems facing the area.
    5. Dan prefers ____________(cook) at home to eating out.
    6. There’s no point in __________(buy) a computer if you are not going to use it.
    7. They have decided _________(decorate) the living room.
    8. The children love __________(go) to the swimming pool.
    9. I regret _________(tell) Alice what Sean had said.
    10. Hydroelectricity and wind turbines can be used __________(provide) environmentally friendly energy.


    6. Read the text. Make the literary translation of the text in writing.


    Communication modes


    The first major communication mode is the written word. In writing, the primary rule is to keep everything short and simple: the words. The sentences, and the ideas. It is never right to try to impress, it either appears patronizing or else just silly.

                If everyone wrote the way they spoke, management reports would be brighter and probably clearer, even though they would sometimes be less polite or less grammatical and we all have too much read. If we can learn to read better, our lives become easier and our decisions potentially wiser, because our information will be more complete.

                The other main communication mode is the spoken word. Most of us find little difficulty in talking to each other. It is only when talking becomes "speaking” that it becomes difficult. But speaking in public is unnecessarily feared.

                Anyone can learn to speak at least adequately in public. To be a brilliant speaker is bigger problem. The best way of getting a message across in speech is to be natural; not to read a script, but to speak just from notes. "Thinking on the feel” is the recommended approach, but to speak without any notes at all is folly. A speaker must watch his audience – a thing no writer can do – and adjust the presentation of his message to the visible reactions of the audience.

                It takes two to communicate. Just as a writer needs a reader, so does each speaker require a listener. We can all improve on our listening skills and the most important part of listening is to concentrate. Because the brain can work significantly faster then a person can speak, listening is conducive to mind-wandering. A wandering brain soon falls asleep. The recommended anti-sleep precaution is to summarize the speaker’s argument as he progresses, noting it down for future reference and formulating questions that you hope the speaker will eventually answer. As memory is often short-lived, and/or unreliable, a brief written note of any important message will pay dividends.

                Visual communication for management does not have to be very artistic – the ability to rule a straight line will take you a long way. Most management illustrations are simple diagrams, but visual communication is not confined to pictures and graphs.

                People themselves transmit visual messages the whole time, often unwittingly: our eyes widen, we lean forward – both signals denoting an increased interest. A good manager notices such signals and takes advantage of them. Other signals – to display confidence or well-being – can be deliberately adopted to create a desired impression.

                Before initiating any communication, think. Determine the need, the recipient, the objective, and the content of each communication.


    7. Give the Russian equivalents for the following word combinations from the text:

    Communication mode; the written word; content; management reports; grammatical; spoken worse; to speak in public; brilliant speaker; to get a message across; to speak from notes; listener; listening skills; recipient; visual communication; to transmit visual messages; will pay dividends.


    8. Make up questions to each paragraph of the text.


    9. Give the Russian equivalents for the following word combinations from the text: communication mode; the written word; in writing; content; management reports; spoken word; to speak in public; brilliant speaker; to get a message across; to speak from notes; listener; listening skills; recipient; visual communication; to transmit visual message; will pay dividends.

          Give the English equivalents for the following word combinations from the text: блестящий оратор; сообщение; довести мысль до слушателя; читать по записям; способ общения; следить за реакцией аудитории; графики; письмо; умение слушать; содержание; чтение диаграммы; цель высказывания; концентрировать внимание; получатель; устное слово; воспользоваться преимуществом.


    10. Fill in right words from the list below.


         Communication is not made until it is received and _____. The prime essential in any form of communication is  therefore to know the audience. It is important also to accept the concept that ____ tend to receive – to hear, to read, to see – very largely only what is familiar while trying ____ or reject what is new.

         No ____ how much the sender of the message may try, the taking of that massage depends on the past _____(training) of the recipient. This characteristic can also be partially allowed for in the communication process – by departing from the well known and moving in short, simple ____ towards the really new.

         Every communication seeks ______  the recipient. It may seek ____ him to take some____ of action, to make a decision one way or another, or merely to apply his mind to accepting more information. If we think about persuasion it is clear that we are most likely ___ if acceptance of the persuasion is made easy.

         The fundamental principle of ___ is: write (or speak) clearly and simply so that the reader (or listener) can easily understand.


    Communication; to succeed; steps; people; experience; to influence; matter; course; to ignore; understood; to persuade

    Категория: Pre Intermediate | Добавил: Admin (21.07.2011)
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