Infinitives/ -ing Forms
1. Fill each
blank, choosing between infinitives with or without to:
Lenny’s father let
him________the family car (drive).
Do you want me_________that
shop’s address for you (copy)?
Let’s tell the taxi
driver_________for us here (wait).
Will this nasty weather make
you__________your plans (change)?
We’d better___________about it
Perhaps we should request the
professor_________a bit louder (speak).
Translate the following sentences from English into Russian paying attention to
the infinitive of purpose.
All was done to save him.
2. He called for his car to take
us to the station.
3. He went to the library to take the
journals and books he needs for his English exam.
4. She always has a walk in the evening
to sleep better at night.
5. He was walking slowly in order not
to fall down.
6. I wrote a letter to him to remind
him of his promise.
Translate from Russian into English paying attention to the infinitive after
1. Очень глупо с его стороны было вести
себя подобным образом.
С ней трудно иметь дело.
Он очень изменился. Его трудно узнать.
Было уже слишком поздно, чтобы менять что-нибудь.
Любезно с вашей стороны помочь мне.
Он боялся забыть о своем обещании.
4. Insert to where necessary before the
infinitive in brackets.
He made me (do) it all over the
2. He will be able (swim) very soon.
3. You ought (go) today. It may (rain)
4. Visitors are asked (not feed) the animals.
5. I advised him (ask) the bus
conductor (tell) him where (get) off.
6. Did you remember (give) him the
money? – No, I didn’t, I still have it in my pocket; but I’ll (see) him tonight
and I promise (not forget) this time.
5. Fill in correct
form of the verb in brackets (to –infinitive or –ing form), as in the examples.
goes to evening classes to learn
- Learning (learn) a Ianguage can help
you to get a job.
no! I forgot _______(buy) eggs when I was at the supermarket.
government is determined __________(solve) some of the environmental
problems facing the area.
prefers ____________(cook) at home to eating out.
no point in __________(buy) a computer if you are not going to use it.
have decided _________(decorate) the living room.
children love __________(go) to the swimming pool.
regret _________(tell) Alice
what Sean had said.
and wind turbines can be used __________(provide) environmentally friendly
6. Read the text. Make the literary translation of the text in
The first major
communication mode is the written word. In writing, the primary rule is to keep
everything short and simple: the words. The sentences, and the ideas. It is
never right to try to impress, it either appears patronizing or else just
everyone wrote the way they spoke, management reports would be brighter and
probably clearer, even though they would sometimes be less polite or less
grammatical and we all have too much read. If we can learn to read better, our
lives become easier and our decisions potentially wiser, because our
information will be more complete.
other main communication mode is the spoken word. Most of us find little
difficulty in talking to each other. It is only when talking becomes "speaking”
that it becomes difficult. But speaking in public is unnecessarily feared.
can learn to speak at least adequately in public. To be a brilliant speaker is
bigger problem. The best way of getting a message across in speech is to be
natural; not to read a script, but to speak just from notes. "Thinking on the
feel” is the recommended approach, but to speak without any notes at all is
folly. A speaker must watch his audience – a thing no writer can do – and
adjust the presentation of his message to the visible reactions of the
takes two to communicate. Just as a writer needs a reader, so does each speaker
require a listener. We can all improve on our listening skills and the most
important part of listening is to concentrate. Because the brain can work
significantly faster then a person can speak, listening is conducive to
mind-wandering. A wandering brain soon falls asleep. The recommended anti-sleep
precaution is to summarize the speaker’s argument as he progresses, noting it
down for future reference and formulating questions that you hope the speaker
will eventually answer. As memory is often short-lived, and/or unreliable, a
brief written note of any important message will pay dividends.
communication for management does not have to be very artistic – the ability to
rule a straight line will take you a long way. Most management illustrations
are simple diagrams, but visual communication is not confined to pictures and
themselves transmit visual messages the whole time, often unwittingly: our eyes
widen, we lean forward – both signals denoting an increased interest. A good
manager notices such signals and takes advantage of them. Other signals – to
display confidence or well-being – can be deliberately adopted to create a
initiating any communication, think. Determine the need, the recipient, the
objective, and the content of each communication.
7. Give the Russian equivalents for the following word combinations from
Communication mode; the written
word; content; management reports; grammatical; spoken worse; to speak in
public; brilliant speaker; to get a message across; to speak from notes;
listener; listening skills; recipient; visual communication; to transmit visual
messages; will pay dividends.
8. Make up questions to each paragraph of the text.
9. Give the Russian equivalents for the following
word combinations from the text: communication mode; the written word; in writing; content; management
reports; spoken word; to speak in public; brilliant speaker; to get a message
across; to speak from notes; listener; listening skills; recipient; visual
communication; to transmit visual message; will pay dividends.
the English equivalents for the following word combinations from the text: блестящий оратор; сообщение; довести мысль до
слушателя; читать по записям; способ общения; следить за реакцией аудитории;
графики; письмо; умение слушать; содержание; чтение диаграммы; цель
высказывания; концентрировать внимание; получатель; устное слово;
10. Fill in right words from the list below.
Communication is not made until it is received and _____. The prime
essential in any form of communication is
therefore to know the audience. It is important also to accept the
concept that ____ tend to receive – to hear, to read, to see – very largely
only what is familiar while trying ____ or reject what is new.
No ____ how much the sender of the message may try, the taking of that
massage depends on the past _____(training) of the recipient. This
characteristic can also be partially allowed for in the communication process –
by departing from the well known and moving in short, simple ____ towards the
Every communication seeks ______
the recipient. It may seek ____ him to take some____ of action, to make
a decision one way or another, or merely to apply his mind to accepting more
information. If we think about persuasion it is clear that we are most likely
___ if acceptance of the persuasion is made easy.
The fundamental principle of ___ is: write (or speak) clearly and simply
so that the reader (or listener) can easily understand.
Communication; to succeed; steps; people; experience; to influence;
matter; course; to ignore; understood; to persuade