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    топики по английскому языку с переводом [138]

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    Illustrate the prior ways of the development of science and education in Ukraine.

    Education is rooted in very old traditions reaching back to the pagan times. In old Rus' monasteries were the first venues of sciences... In the 16th -18Ih centuries, an increasing number of schools were set up by national religious-educational communities - "Brotherhoods", for instance, in Lviv (1585), in Kyiv (1615), in Lytsk (1620). A major venue of science in Ukraine of the 18th century was the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. At the turn of the 18th century the level of public literacy placed Ukraine ahead of a number of Western and Eastern European countries. The first universities appeared in Kharkiv (1805), Kyiv (1834) and Odesa (1865). In the 19th century these universities became noted research centres where the first national schools of sciences took shape. Specialized institutes were also opened for training industrial, railroad engineers, agronomists, physicians and specialists in other fields at that very period of time. Much credit in the development of Ukrainian science is due to M.Ostrohradsky (mathematics), O.Bodyansky (linguistics), V.Antonovych (history), VObraztsov, M.Strazhesko, V.Filatov (various branches of medicine). The creation of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1918 (since 1994 the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) was an event of historical importance. Present-day independent Ukraine has inherited a rather developed system of education from the previous regime, which answers the standards of the developed countries. General secondary education in Ukraine is used to be free but compulsory. Despite today's hardships resulting from the economic crisis, a programme of educational reforms aimed at integrating the national schooling system into the world's educational medium, at satisfying the people's national-cultural needs and protecting their rights, irrespective of ethnic origin. The educational system includes over 23,000 so-called preschool educational establishments where some 2mln. Children are taught their mother tongue. The basic link in the chain of public education in Ukraine is the "general education (grade) school", of which there are about 22,000 now, with a student body of nearly 7 million. Each has three stages: primary, basic and senior. Nowadays a new type of schools are there in Ukraine: gymnasiums and lycees. A great number of various private schools have appeared recently. Vocational training schools provide almost 800 qualifications. In most of them the working students are also taught the complete curriculum of secondary' education. Post - secondary education is provided by over 750 institutions of what is known as the 1st and 2nd level of Accreditation, for example, technical schools and colleges training young specialists, and by over 160 institutions of higher learning, such as universities (classical, technological and branch ones), academies, conservatories, institutes. Ukraine numbers a total of 1,5 million college-and-university students. Among the well-known Universities in Ukraine are Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Dragomanov Pedagogical Kyiv National University, Kyiv Polytechnic University, International Independent University "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy", Kyiv State Conservatory, I.Franko State University of Lviv, Odesa State Naval Academy, State Universities in Kharkiv, Odesa, Donetsk, Simpheropol and many others. A profound system was created to train research personnel in Ukraine. In particular, 360 institutions of learning run postgraduate courses enrolling over 15 000. Ukrainian scientists developed the theory and mastered the highly productive hidden - are welding technique, laid the foundation of molecular spectroscopy, electronic chemistry, the theory of electrolytes, the phytohormone theory of tropism, etc. International scientific exchanges also remain on an upward curve. The Institute of Electric Welding and the aviation and space firm "Pratt and Wiltny" (USA) established a joint research centre and an enterprise to develop the technologies of new materials, using Kyiv - sired speed electronic beam evaporation and vacuum condensation techniques. The Institute and the US firm also founded a joint venture, "Paton - Weld", to develop the Ukrainian technologies of permanent metal, metal-non-metal, ceramic and other connections, and to market them in the USA and other countries.
    Категория: топики по английскому языку с переводом | Добавил: Admin (29.10.2011)
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