Meaning: it represents the action as problematic.
Form: it reminds us of the form of the infinitive without the particle “to”. This form is used for all the persons.
Ex. The Poles demamnded that Ivan Susanin show them the way to Moscow.
Success attend you! – Пусть Вам сопутствует удача!
Subjunctive I has no tenses.
1) it can express suggestion, order, supposition, desirability.
Ex. Catherine II ordered that Radishchev be thrown to prison.
2) Subjunctive I is very seldom used in Modern English. It can be found in the language of official documents, elevated poetry and American English. Instead of Sub I in colloquial speech we can find the Suppositional Mood which is synonymous with Sub I in its meaning.
Ex. Sub I: The agronomist demanded that we water flowers every day.
Suppos. : The agronomist demanded that we should water flowers every day.
3) is used in set expressions and it has in them an optative meaning (желательное значение).
Ex. God bless you!
So be it!
Subjunctive I is also used in slogans where it has an optative meaning.
Ex. Long live the Queen!
The Suppositional Mood.
Meaning: it represents an action as problematic but not as contradicting the reality. It is used to expres order, suggestion, demand, request, supposition, purpose.
Form: it has 2 tenses: Present and Past.
The present form: should + Indefinite Infinitive (refers the action to the present)
The past form: should + Perfect Infinitive (refers the action to the past)
It is used in different subordinate clauses of complex sentences
1) in a subordinate clause after the anticipatory “it”
Ex. It is important that you should speak only English at our lessons.
2) in an object subordinate clause after the verbs of order, suggestion and recommendation.
Ex. The commander ordered that the soldiers should cross the river.
3) in an object subordinate clause introduced by the conjunction “lest” (как бы не) after the verbs of fear: to fear, to be terrified, to be afraid.
Ex. The mother was afraid lest her children should lose the way.
4) in an adverbial subordinate clause of purpose introduced by the conjunction “lest”.
Ex. We shall start at 7 o’clock lest we should miss the train. (What for?)
5) in an adverbial subordinate clause of concession (уступка) introduced by the conjunctions “though”, “whatever”, “wherever”, “however”, “whoever”, “whenever”.
Ex. Though it should rain, we shall have to go.
Wherever you should meet him, invite him to your house.
6) in an adverbial subordinate clause of real condition introduced by the conjunction “if”.
Ex. If you should meet him, tell him to come.
Should you meet him, tell him to come.
Should it rain, take an umbrella.
Meaning: represents an action as problematic as contrary to reality but this unreality is independent.
Form: it has 2 tenses.
Present: homonymous with Past Simple.
Past: homonymous with Past Perfect.
It can be used in simple and complex sentences.
1) in a simple sentence after the words “oh that!” (о, если бы!)
Ex. Oh, that I were free now!
2) in different kinds of subordinate clauses of complex sentences:
- in a subordinate clause after the expressions “it’s time” and “it’s high time”.
Ex. It is high time they arrived.
- in an object subordinate clause after the verb “to wish”.
Ex. I wish it were summer now. (present)
I wish you spoke some foreign language. (present)
I wish I had seen this film (past)
I wish I hadn’t seen this film. It is so boring! (past)
- in an adverbial subordinate clause of comparison introduced by the conjunctions “as if”, “as though”. The subordinate clause of comparison is used after the notional verbs.
Ex. He loved the boy as if he were his own son.
She knew English so well as though she had lived all her life in England.
- in a predicative subordinate clause (придаточное именное) introduced by the conjunctions “as if”, “as though”. In this case the subordinate predicative clause is used after the link-verbs look, be, grow, become, seem, feel, set, etc.
Ex. It was is if nothing had happened.
She looked as if she were ill.
- in an adverbial subordinate clause of unreal condition introduced by the conjunction “if”.
Ex. If it were summer now, I would go to the south.
- in an adverbial subordinate clause of concession introduced by the conjunctions “even if”, “even though”.
Ex. Even if Sarah had married Larry, they wouldn’t have been happy.
- in indirect questions.
Ex. I don’t know if it were true.